Adaptation, Agency, And Slavery: Topics In Latin American History

1233 Words 5 Pages
Darien Wellman
Topics in Latin American History
Dr. Nadel
September 6, 2015
Brockington, Lolita. “The African Diaspora in the Eastern Andes: Adaptation, Agency, and Fugitive Action, 1573-1677.” The Americas 57:2 (October 2000): 207-224.
Bryant, Sherwin. “Finding Gold, Forming Slavery: The Creation of a Classic Slave Society, Popoyan, 1600-1700.” The Americas 63:1 (July 2006) 81-112.
Garofalo, Leo J. “Conjuring with Coca and the Inca: The Andeanization of Lima’s Afro-Peruvian Ritual Specialists, 1580-1690.” The Americas 63:1 (July 2006): 53-80. Leo J. Garofalo’s “Conjuring with Coca and the Inca: The Andeanization of Lima’s Afro-Peruvian Ritual Specialists, 1580-1690”, Lolita Brockington’s “The African Diaspora in the Eastern Andes: Adaptation,
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In Popoyan’s case, many elites wanted to get their hands on gold, and began using slaves in order to mine it. The period of importation between the 1580s and 1600s was mostly sporadic. 53 were the average of slaves sent during the period. Most of these slaves were still working alongside Amerindians. Despite the low amount of slaves, Popoyan was still able to do fairly well in finding gold. Between the 1620s and 1630s, through the combination of both slaves and Amerindians, the average amount of gold found equaled to a total of 190,000 pesos. Numbers such as this show how Popoyan did so well in the gold market. Over the next several years, slave imports continued to rise, and by the 1670s, Popoyan was the number one slave market in the northern Andes region. In the case of Mizque, the growth of their slave society depended heavily upon slave labor on plantations. Brockington said that Mizque’s first imported slaves were only men, but soon switched to a system of including women and children laborers. For slaves in Mizque, they had to deal with “living in family clusters with a mother and a father present and in some cases up to five children” (Brockington 212). There were also slave codes enforced upon slaves, due to fears that they would rise up against their slaveholders. In Popoyan, Bryant said the slaves felt the pains of the colonial’s obsessive ambitions. The author said the colonials …show more content…
Garofalo said these specialists were “an example of black participation in forging a place in colonial society during the sixteenth and seventeenth century” (Garofalo 53). During this period, Europeans began a series of campaigns to outlaw superstitious, witchcraft practices. King Philip also identified this issue in Brockington’s article, who believed these practices would be very harmful to the colonies. As these campaigns began, many of Lima’s Afro-Peruvian citizens and Europeans went to the ritualists, in order to receive help with illnesses or love interests. In the sixteenth century, more introductions of Christian practices were combined with ritual practice. Examples included “Afro-Peruvians turned to both altar stone and St. Martha as important sources of Christian supernatural aid when addressing concerns such as marriage, pregnancy, economic support, and respectful treatment. They also believed in utilizing and channeling the sacred power of Catholic prayers and Church items to empower their own lives”(Garofalo 66-67). There were those even within the Catholic faith who went to the practitioners for help. The Inquisition tried to use punishments such as whippings, exile, and fines in order to discourage the practitioners. However, it did little to change minds. There was also the use of the cocoa leaf, which was seen by missionaries as a dirty leaf. It was considered “vice-ridden whenever

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