Literature Review: Immigrant Acculturation

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Immigrant acculturation
Immigrant parents have challenges in parenting and rearing their children, as well as living in a new society. Research shows that child behavior problems are affected by parent-child interaction and the quality of parenting (Abidin, 1995) which are influenced by parents’ life events (Olds, 1988; Webster-Stratton & Taylor, 2001), such as moving into a new society (Berry, 1997). Besides, connectedness with the society of settlement is another area associated to immigrant adaptation. Berry (1997) suggested four possible ways of acculturation for immigrants who are moving to the new culture including assimilation, separation, integration and marginalization. Assimilation refers to the coping strategy adopted
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It is an approach to counselling that the therapist takes a non-directive role and the client experience the change themselves. It is designed to promote openness, growth and change in understanding the counselling process. It is believed that every human being has the capacity to develop potential and strives for the best, which is self-actualization.
This approach is not concerned with finding out the causes of the problem and the best solution possible. It is the individual client, in an open and accepting relationship with the therapist, who is empowered to take control over his or her own healing. This approach operates according to the three principles reflecting the attitude of therapist to the client: congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathetic understanding. Congruence refers to the therapist allows clients to express who they are and be genuine to the clients. Unconditional positive regard is the therapist’s deep and genuine caring for the client no matter who he or she is, and to be able to accept unconditionally and non-judgmentally. Empathetic understanding is to be able to understand the client’s feelings, thoughts and meanings from the client’s perspective. An important strength of person-centred approach is its goal of avoiding theoretical or subjective preconceptions about the inner experiences of clients. However, there are some arguments against this approach. It has been argued by environmental and behavioral psychologists that Rogers failed to realize

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