In childhood development, the most influential social unit is the family, specifically the parents. Parents are the primary persons who are responsible to teach good values and behaviour in children. Parents have different methods on how to transmit their values, skills, behaviour, and attitudes to their children. Most parents want their children to do well in school however not all parents are successful in this. When parents have a good way of handling their child, it can possibly boost a child’s academic motivation and academic achievement. However, not all parents may exercise the proper approach when handling their children, this is because parents may differ in punishing, reinforcing, caring, and showing
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Adolescents who perceived their parents to be authoritative engaged in more effective learning and studying strategies, therefore an Authoritative Parenting Style can be considered as the most effective parenting style for academic achievement because it constitutes a balance between both responsiveness/warmth and demandingness (Steinberg, et.al, 1992 as cited in Hong, 2012). An authoritative parenting style has established benefits to children as opposed to the negative outcomes produce by authoritarian and permissive parenting (Demo & Cox, 2000). Authoritative parenting is competence inducing in that it recognizes the child’s need for control and individuality, views and rights and duties of parents and children as complementary, and is characterized by sensitivity to children’s capabilities and the development task they face (Belsky, Lerrer, & Spanier, 1984). Authoritative parenting has been associated with numerous positive child outcomes such as high social competence, positive social adjustment and low psychological and behavioral dysfunction (Grolnick & Ryan, 1989; Lambourn, et al., 1991). Furthermore Baumrind (1991) found that children are more competent, more achievement oriented and more academically motivated when their parents are warm, supportive and caring, which is a characteristic of the authoritative parenting style (Chandler, Heffer, and Turner, 2009).
According to Cramer’s research