A Short Note On Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Essay
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterised by hyperglycaemia which may present with serious complications including ketoacidosis, renal dysfunction, stroke and visual impairment. In type 2 diabetes hyperglycaemia is caused by an insulin resistance of the muscle and adipose tissue while in type 1 diabetes an immune-mediated destruction of the β-cells within the Islet of Langerhans results in an insufficient production of insulin (Van Belle, Coppieters and Von Herrath, 2011; Chiang et al., 2014). This autoimmune attack on the insulin producing cells is thought to be caused by a genetic predisposition which is triggered by an environmental event (Atkinson and Eisenbarth, 2001).
Genetic susceptibility is rarely associated with the mutation of a single gene, and these monogenic forms of type 1 diabetes are commonly accompany other autoimmune conditions due to interruptions in regulatory pathways. More commonly the predisposition is associated with a mutation of several genes including the HLA genes and the insulin gene (Van Belle, Coppieters and Von Herrath, 2011).
The two main environmental triggers viral infections and the bacterial composition of the gut flora (Van Belle, Coppieters and Von Herrath, 2011). Enteroviruses including Coxsackievirus B, rotavirus, mumps virus and cytomegalovirus have demonstrated a strong correlation with the development of type 1 diabetes through molecular mimicry and activation of autoreactive T cells by…