The World Health Organization defines diabetes as a, “chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces” (2015). These disturbances in this balance between glucose and insulin can be found in various forms including type one diabetes, type two diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Those diagnosed with type one diabetes can be found predominantly in children to younger adults as the result of an autoimmune reaction to the beta cells of the pancreas which prevent the production of insulin. Whereas type two diabetes is diagnosed in the middle age to older adult as a result of acquired insulin resistance due to high glucose intake, physical inactivity, and/or obesity. Gestational diabetes is a unique form of diabetes in that it typically resolves after the delivery of the baby, however the mother is placed at increased risk of developing type two diabetes later in life and the newborn can have residual effects (American Diabetes Association, 2014). Combining all three varieties of diabetes, one can see its vast involvement in humans of all age.
In 2014 alone, 29.1 Americans were affected by diabetes mellitus with 8.1 million of those individuals remaining undiagnosed further increasing their risk for harm and disability (American Diabetes Association, 2014). A category of pre-diabetes has been established to curtail the amount of individuals living with the…