2301 Final Exam Workbook Essay

6577 Words Jan 15th, 2015 27 Pages
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

Objective 1.1

Define psychology.
Psychology is defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Key Terms

psychology

Exercises

1. Put a check mark by each statement that is true regarding psychology.
___X__ Psychologists study human behavior.
___X__ Psychologists study animal behavior.
___X__ Psychologists study emotions and mental processes.
_____ Psychology and "common sense" lead to the same conclusions about behavior and mental processes.
_____ Psychology is not a science.

Objective 1.2

Define the scientific method, and explain how it is used in psychology.

Key Terms

Scientific method: The orderly, systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a
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During periods of forced wakefulness, participants were required to engage verbal learning tasks such as memorizing the definitions of obscure English words. At the conclusion of the period of forced wakefulness, participants were allowed to sleep for as long as they wanted to. When participants awakened, researchers tested them on the learning tasks they completed during the periods of forced wakefulness. The researchers discovered that participants who were deprived of sleep for 48 hours recalled less than those who had been forced to remain awake for 24 hours.
1a. What is the independent variable?_____________________________________________
1b. What is the dependent variable?_______________________________________________
1c. What is the control group?____________________________________________________
1d. What is/are the experimental group(s)?__________________________________________

3. Why is random assignment critical to the experimental method?

Objective 1.7

Explain the rationale behind placebo-controlled experiments.

Key Terms

placebo double-blind technique placebo effect experimenter bias

Exercises

1. Why do researchers use placebos and double-blind designs?

2. Read the scenario and answer the questions.

Sam's psychology professor, Dr. Smith, recruited him to serve as a research assistant. Sam's job was to teach study participants a new strategy for studying textbook material. Experimental group participants

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