Creamer refers to a 2011 Catalyst survey of Fortune 500 leadership, asserting that for every seven executive officers only one is female, a 14% leadership rate. Likewise, according to the Hawaii Business Black Book, a record of the top 250 business and nonprofit organizations sees one woman for every five executives, a 20% leadership rate.
Creamer cites several laws that have attempted to eliminate …show more content…
Supreme Court is “chipping away at gains” made by the feminist movement. However, neither Creamer nor Chesney-Lind provides examples of this. Creamer samples Judith A. Baer and Leslie Friedman Goldstein’s textbook "The Constitutional and Legal Rights of Women," saying that, "the United States remains a male-dominated society."
Creamer further quotes several statistics regarding both equal pay and women in power: a 54% growth of women owned businesses between 1997 and 2011, women make up 46.6% of the labor force (as of 2011), woman make up of 51.4% of managerial and professional related positions (as of 2011), women who work for full-time or salary wages earn 81.2% of what a man earns in the same full-time or salary wage category in 2010, up from 64.2% in 1980.
Creamer addresses the larger question on the leadership gap with several points. She offers that many women who work full-time are less likely to take leadership roles in lieu of a more balanced role that prioritizes family time. Men are more likely to sacrifice family time to build social business networks during non-working hours. She also recognized that while women make up approximately half of college graduates, women are less likely to study science, technology, engineering or math. Women are more likely to choose academia and philanthropy over higher-paying, higher-stress jobs in corporate