Essay on 11 Explain the historical development of
In the 1890’s Sigmund Freud, a German neurologist developed a theory later to be called psychoanalysis, which allowed individuals to tell their problems to a ‘psychoanalyst’ an individual trained in interpreting the ‘subconscious’. He played an important part in the history of counselling but the actual word “counselling” did not come into everyday language until 1960’s.
Counselling really took off after the Second World War, in 1950’s America. Most of the therapies we hear about today can trace their origins back to a handful of psychologists and psychiatrists who developed techniques and theories, sometimes referred …show more content…
"I had the privilege of meeting, listening to, and observing Dr. Alfred Adler . . . . Accustomed as I was to the rather rigid Freudian approach of the Institute--seventy-five-page case histories, and exhaustive batteries of tests before even thinking of "treating" a child--I was shocked by Dr. Adler's very direct and deceptively simple manner of immediately relating to the child and the parent. It took me some time to realize how much I had learned from him." (Cited in Ansbacher, 1990, p. 47)
Another strong influence of Rogers' model was Maslow's theory of self- actualisation. Maslow (1943) believed people are motivated to achieve certain needs that are not related to rewards. He developed a theory that people strive to ‘self-actualise’, to become the best they can be.
So, Rogers moved from being an expert, someone who highly trained in psychological techniques, to someone who realised that the relationship was the most important thing in within this therapy. This was called non-directive therapy, where client is the expert and humans have free will. It was absolute revolutionary in psychological circles of that time. As a result Rogers became a founder of Person-Centred Approach and one of the most influential psychologists and psychotherapists of the 20th century.
Ongoing significant contributors