1. How Would You Explain The Cell Cycle To Your Patient.
1. How would you explain the cell cycle to your patient? (20 points)
Scenario: A 21-yearl-old lady came into the primary care network clinic to avail of health teachings and resources for first time mothers. After graduation from nursing school, Alisha Marston got married to her former classmate and now expecting a baby due in 7 months. After being given instructions for the blood work and necessary health teachings, I offered to further discuss how the fertilized egg in her body would develop into a mature organism. She obliged.
G1, the gap 1 phase is where the cell grows and carries out metabolic processes. S, the synthesis phase where the cell replication of its DNA occurs. G2, the gap 2 phase is where the cell continues …show more content…
2. Discuss the mechanism of fever and the role of fever in inflammation and infection (20 points)
Alisha Marston comes in the emergency department 3 weeks after her cesarean section. All her vital signs are within normal limits except for her temperature, which is at 38.3° Celsius. She is warm to touch with rosy cheeks. She said, “I thought to observe it for a few days but with on and off headaches, feelings of malaise and most especially with this opened painful incision, I decided to seek help.” http://www.herpessecret.com/
Having had surgery, Alisha’s tissue cells were subjected to injury. In response to the insult, mediators such as cytokines signal the hypothalamus to the vasomotor center inducing endocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses leading to fever. (Cotran et. al, 1999). Fever is an elevation of the core body temperature to 38° Celsius and above. With the intent to eliminate initial causes of cell injury, acute inflammation occurred. The principal signs of this hallmark of the innate immune response include warmth, redness, swelling and pain, which Alisha is manifesting. Vasodilation increases blood flow to the site causing the heat and redness; increased vascular permeability leads to the escape of exudate and swelling; tissue injury stimulating release of prostaglandins causes the pain. A loss of function was added as a clinical sign. (Costran et. al, 1999) …show more content…
Autoimmunity refers to the presence of antibodies and T cells that reacts with self--antigens but this self-reactivity does not necessarily mean a pathogenic outcome. Autoimmune disease features injury caused by the immunologic reaction of the body with its own tissues. (Braunchwald et. al., 2003). Environmental factors and susceptibility genes play a role in developing autoimmune diseases as well as the hormonal status of an individual. Even if the general rule is “self-tolerance”, some individuals have sustained immune response against their own tissue cells. When the “self-tolerance” is gone, autoimmune responses are initiated and these autoimmune reactions cause the severe tissue