1, 4-Diethoxybenzene And Neutral Benzoic Acid

In this experiment, unknown B was a solid mixture containing two compounds of interests, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene and neutral benzoic acid. These compounds were separated by extraction and washing, and liquid-liquid extraction was specifically performed. Extraction is the process by which a compound of interest is selectively removed from impurities, and washing is the process by which unwanted products or impurities are selectively removed from the desired product.

In liquid-liquid extraction, unknown B was dissolved sequentially into two immiscible liquids via a separatory funnel. The differences in solubility of the liquid solvents was important because it allowed 1,4-dimethoxybenzene and neutral benzoic acid to eventually separate or extract
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This is because an ion does not exist by itself in a solution, as it is too reactive and will always be bonded on to something. The salt product formed is derived from the cation of the base and the anion of the acid in the reaction between benzoic acid and sodium bicarbonate.
Simultaneously, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene has similar solubility’s with diethyl-ether and remains dissolved in the ether layer throughout the experiment while benzoic ion mostly remains in the aqueous layer. The ether layer can be distinguished from the water layer due to their differences in density, where diethyl ether contains lighter atoms as opposed to sodium bicarbonate. As a result, diethyl ether will be less dense and will be the top layer while the sodium bicarbonate solution will be denser and will be the bottom
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Infrared Radiation (IR) Spectroscopy is a much stronger evidence in identifying and verifying the identity of the benzoic acid component. IR Spectroscopy can be used to differentiate the functional groups in compounds because different bonds absorb at slightly frequencies of IR radiation. In IR spectroscopy, the units of frequency is recorded as wave number. In benzoic acids, the functional groups present are a carboxylic acid and an aromatic ring. The carboxylic acid has a C=O and OH stretch and the aromatic ring has a C=C and a Csp2-H, thus readings can be expected at roughly 1720 cm-1 for the C=O stretch, and the carboxylic acid feeding into 3200-3100 cm-1. Also, readings can be expected at roughly 1600 and 3100 cm-1 for the C=C and Csp2-H respectively. These frequencies are evident in the IR Spectrum analysis of benzoic

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