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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Inequality refers to unequal
distribution of scarce goods or resources.
Stratification refers to
the hierarchical structure of society.
Stratification in hunting and gathering societies is characterized by
age, wisdom, skill in hunting, or magical abilities, but they do not derive any power from their status because there is no area to exercise their authority and little to do except work. With such a little group and so little differentiation in these societies, there is little stratification. No one can be excused from work and they must share everything in order to survive.
Stratification in simple horticultural societies
stratification develops as labor is divided among different groups and wealth and status accumulates. A DIVISION OF LABOR develops when some people do certain specialized occupations: warrors and ceremonial and political leaders, etc.
Stratification in advanced horticultural societies
social differentiation and stratification are much greater in these societies than in simple horticultural societies as theses advanced groups farm with irrigation, terracing, and fertilization. With this increase in food, the size of the population can grow. The size and wealth of the populations increase and a greater variety of occupations develops, stratification increases, and the political leader becomes a very wealthy an powerful person who can raise a large army and can use it to capture more slaves and force them to do whatever the leader chooses.
Stratification in agrarian societies
such as those found in Europe during the Middle Ages have far more sophisticated technology than horticultural societies. With this technology (1) defenses and weapons are improved this leads to major abilities to capture, rule, and have serfs systems (2) as the variety of good grows, a merchant class develops to trade those goods. The more powerful rulers tax the wealth accumulated by the merchant class and become extremely rich.
Stratification in industrial societies
such as the United States and western European countries, have the greatest division of labor, the most wealth, and therefore the most stratification.
Durkheim believed the division of labor created ____________________ solidarity.
Define caste system:
ascribed at birth. An individual's worth is judged on the basis of religious or traditional beliefs about the person or the person's family. The caste system is very rigid: it is a CLOSED SYSTEM. No one can move into another caste.
Social class, according to Weber, is based on
the amount of honor and prestige a person receives from others in the community. He called it social status. Social class is wealth acquired and life chances to increase income.
Social status refers to
the amount of honor and prestige a person receives from others in the community.
The term party, for Weber, refers to
an organization in which decisions are made to reach the group's goals, such as to win an election, change a law, revise the banking system, educate children, or any other goal.
Income, education, and occupation are often used to obtain a measure of a person’s
socioeconimic status (SES)
Structural functional theorists suggest that stratification occurs because
society, like any other organism, is self-regulating and self-maintianing. (survival of the fittest)
Conflict theorists suggest that stratification occurs because
inequality develops as a result of people's desire for power and that close-knit groups comptet with one another to gain possession of the scarce resources that are a source of power.
The dominant group in society, according to conflict theorists,
once a dominant group gets power, the group LEGITIMATES its power and makes it acceptable by appealing to the values of the masses.
Sociologists generally agree that when stratification occurs, there is
consensus among members of the swociety that inequality is good, fair, and just.
The 2001 median income in the United States for men with full-time jobs was
The 2001 median income in the United States for women with full-time jobs was
$ 17,868
When people assign themselves to a class, they most often define themselves as
working class (36.6% defined themselves as working class)
People generally feel warmest toward people who are in _______________ social class
their own
People are very aware of political issues that affect __________________ social class.
their own
Wealthy people pay in total federal, state, and local taxes _______________ rates than middle class or poor people.
The rate of poverty in the United States is__________________ than in other countries.
is generally higher
Poverty is defined as
having fewer resources than necessary to meet the basic necessities of life - food, shelter, and medical care.
Poverty cannot be solved by finding jobs for the adult poor population because
about 40 % work at jobs that pay so little that they fall below the poverty line even though they work.
The majority of people in the United States are __________________ class.
working class
The opportunities a person has to improve his or her income and lifestyle is known as:
life chances.
Mobility in the United States has been influenced by
1. Growth of large corporations.
2. Increased standard of living.
3. Growth of urban areas.
4. Maintenance of a split labor market, which plinters the labot pool in ways that minimize mobility.
5. Advanced technology, such as reliance on computers and robots.
The best predictor of people’s earnings is their
parents ability to earn money. Families with higher income usually have all of the advantages believed to contributre to future money-making abilities.
T F Deviance is behavior that violates norms.
T F Deviance is behavior that is universally unacceptable.
T F Deviant behavior indicates that a society is sick, lacking in moral values, andwithout norms.
T F Norms for proper behavior vary by class.
T F Any behavior that is considered deviant in a man would also be considered deviant in a
T F Almost all males with XYY chromosomes are in jail.
T F Most sociologists reject the notion that biology, heredity, or constitutional factors cause
T F Innovation, ritualism, and retreatism are modes of adapting to anomie.
T F Conflict theories of deviance emphasize widespread social oppression as a cause of deviant
T F Conflict theorists maintain that if people would conform to norms there would be no
T F Deviance is behavior that is labeled deviant.
T F Labeling theory concentrates on getting people to conform to internal and external forms of
T F Deviance is in many ways good and useful for society.
T F The legal system treats all status groups equally.
T F The war on drugs has been highly successful.
Explain why wealthier societies have greater inequality
Compare and contrast structural functional and conflict theory views of the causes of stratification.
How would you synthesize these views?
Explain why the American class system has been stable for the past fifty years. Consider the structural
changes in American society in your discussion.
Compare and contrast the lifestyles of the rich with those of the poor in the areas discussed in the text.
What other aspects of their lives can you compare and contrast?
Explain whether and how you might change the stratification system in the United States. Are your
views more in harmony with structural functionalism or with conflict theory?