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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gender is differentiated from sex in that gender pertains to:
social status. It refers to the social differences between the sexes, specifically to the cultural concepts of masculinity and femininity. Gender roles refer to the behavior that are expected of men and women.
Cross-cultural studies of gender differences show that gender roles vary
in that men and women occupy roles in ways very unlike those typically found in the United States.
In Chambri women are the, weaving, planting,harvesting...with the babies with them...the men are incharge of producting arts and crafts and planning ceremonies. The women tolerate the men - but remain remote emotionally.
Generally, in hunting and gathering societies both men and women learn to be
assertive and independent and everyone must be responsible for finding food.
As societies become more complex, the roles of men and women become more
differentiated? Why do women have a lower status in modern society that men? Page. 263
Structural functionalists theorize that the roles of husbands and wives are becoming
parallel roles, where roles of husbands and wives are similar. The change has been gradual, but both husbands and wives are now likely to work outside th ehome, and both are increasingly shareing household dutues. Most functionalists believe that the family will benefit as equality increases between men and women.
Structural functionalists believe that women will eventually develop roles similar to those of
as industrial society develops, women should move into the work force and attain equality with men.
Conflict theorists argue that men have long considered women
protected property of men, so that men could accumulate wealth and have children to inherit it. Women were exploited by men for the work they did and for the children they bore and reared. In an industrial society conflict theorist believe that men will use their wealth and power to improve their own position and women will lage farther and farther behind.
Conflict theorists believe that women are easily trapped in the ___________ labor market.
secondary labor market? 267
Women’s economic role in society is most important in _________________________ societies.
Medieval women produced goods _________________________________________ for income.
textiles and other goods traditionally produced by women in the home??? pg. 265
In the Middle Ages women could ___________________________________________________
if they did not wish to marry.
become traders and innkeepers and occasionally ran breweries and blacksmith shops. They often joined guilds which were a type of medieval trade union. Those who did not wish to marry could become BEGUINES, members of urban communes of seven or eight women who pursued such occupations as sewing, baking spinning, and weaving.
At the beginning of the twentieth century ___________________ women married.
the vast majority of women were married and worked in the home to meet the needs of their families.
According to the United Nations: __________ account for about ___ percent of the world’s poor.
women account for about 70% of the world's poor.
One major reason women earn less than men is that wages in the ____________________ labor force, in which most working women are employed, are so low.
Supporters of wages based on comparable worth demand ____________________ for work requiring similar levels of skills, even if not identical.
equal pay
Trends in the labor market, in regards to gender, pay, and employment, show
that globally women on average earn about 3/4 what men earn for the same work. ??? Page 267
The percentage of women senior executives in Fortune 500 companies is ______ percent.
When wives work and husbands are unemployed, who does the housework?
the woman
In Europe the women’s movement focused on ________________________________ for women.
special privileges

Those involved in the movement believe that women have special problems because they assume most of the responsibility for child rearing and therefore need better pay when they work, time off for childbearing, and help from the community in providing child rearing.
In the United States the women’s movement focused on ________________________ for women.
emphasized equal rights

In an effort to unite all women behind the cause of equality, the movement has remained separate from any particular political party or union, for fear that such an alignment would divide women.
No-fault divorce has resulted in women having a __________ standard of living following divorce.
73% decrease in their

(a man can expect a 42% increase in his standard of living)
Women remain in low-paying jobs partly because they
have low self esteem pg. 271
Women’s negative self-perceptions are often based on __________________ given to housewives.
stereotypes ? pg 271
In countries such as Mexico, where families accord high status to housewives, women’s level of stress
is less as they receive more support for their role in the family.
Medical care for women ______________________________________ with the reproductive process.
is primarily involved with the reproducting process...
while women receive less care for the major diseases that kill people in the United State
Sexual harassment is__________________________ to job security and promotion in all types of jobs.
threat for women
Family violence most likely continues because
of true or perceived inequality in women. Women are unable to support themselves and their children and are therefore unwilling to leave home.
List at least three statements about rape which the textbook says are true:
1. Women often know their attacker (acquantance rape/date rape) 21% of female college students have reported being raped.
2. Rape is an act of aggression.
3.Pornography does influence rape.
4. 3 out 10,000 people have been raped.
Violence between the sexes is likely to continue as long as there is ________________________ mutual respect between sexes.
Structural functionalists believe women in the work force will move into _______________________ positions in the bureaucracy.
the upper echelons
T F Men in all societies are more assertive than women.
T F Gender roles in a society are related to its structure.
T F Structural functionalists maintain that the gender roles assigned by a society are functional to
the society.
T F Conflict theorists hold that the gender roles assigned by a society are functional for both men and women.
T F Conflict theorists believe men need to control women so that they can be sure of the paternity of children.
T F The gap between the earnings of men and women has steadily narrowed for the past fifty years.
T F Women hold high-status occupations proportionate to their numbers in the work force about on a par with men.
T F Jobs in the secondary labor force are being moved to third world countries where women work
for low wages.
T F Because comparable worth is fair, it will be enacted soon.
T F Women who work when they have young children at home are less healthy than other women.
T F Swedish women receive one year of paid leave when they have a baby.
T F Stress among women who are housewives occurs more from lack of respect than from the
nature of their work.
T F The women’s movement has successfully made treatment fair for the victims of rape.
Describe the position of women in American society in terms of income and occupation. Is the evidence convincing that women are not significantly improving their position in these two areas? Explain your answer.
What are the social reasons for the fact that women are now represented in the labor force in greater
numbers than ever before? What changes have taken place in industrial society?
Conflict theorists argue that the control of women benefits men, that women are valuable property. What benefits do men derive from controlling women?
What are the detrimental social consequences of gender inequality? Which problems could be
eliminated by increasing the income of women? By increasing their status? Explain your answers.
As women get more education, what do you predict will be their future position in society? Is your prediction true for all women or just some? Explain your answers.