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20 Cards in this Set

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Name two possible cause of "emerging" viruses.
1.Changes in the viral genome
2.Changes in human behavior
3.Changes in vector behavior
4.Changes in the environment
What is the genomic structure of the rabies virus?
Negative sense single-stranded RNA.
The infective cycle of the rabies virus includes three periods of replication - where do these occur?
*striated muscle
*spinal ganglia
*brain
What are 3 factors that determine the length of the incubation period in rabies infection?
1.Amount of virus
2.Virulence factors
3.Length of neural path (i.e. distance from CNS)
In the US, from what kinds of animals are most cases of rabies acquired? What about in developing countries? What is the reason for this difference?
*wild animals, especially bats
*domesticated animals, especially dogs
*effective vaccination of tame pets in the US
What are the initial symptoms of a rabies infection?
Malaise, headache, strange sensations at the site of the bite, myalgia.
What histological feature is characteristic of rabies infection?
Cytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies) in neural tissue biopsy.
What are the steps involved in post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies?
1.Clean wound
2.Inject 20IU/kg of hyperimmune globulin into wound
3.Inactivated vaccine
4.Tetanus vaccination and antibiotics
Why is it important to give no more than 20IU/kg hyperimmune globulin?
More than this will interfere with the effectiveness of the inactivated vaccine.
What are the three major disease states that are produced by zoonotic viruses?
1.Encephalitis
2.Pulmonary syndrome
3.Hemorrhagic fever
Name four symptoms of the Hanta pulmonary syndrome.
1.tachycardia
2.rapid respiration
3.increased WBC
4.cough
5.rapidly progressing pulmonary edema
What event preceded the occurance of Hanta pulmonary syndrome in 1993?
An expansion of the native mouse population.
What hemorrhagic infection is amenable to treatment with ribavirin if started early?
Lassa fever.
What difficulties have been encountered in the development of a vaccine against Dengue fever?
The virus has four serotypes and antibodies against one serotype actually facilitates the pathogenesis of the others.
Give the incidence, average age of onset, and length of survival for sporadic CJD.
*incidence is 1/million
*age of onset is 60-70 years
*length of survival is 1 year
Other than the sporadic form, what forms of CJD exist?
*inherited form
*iatrogenic form
How has nvCJD been associated with BSE?
*geographical links
*temporal links
*similar distribution of plaques
*similar glycosylation patterns
What is the median age of onset of nvCJD?
28 years.
What is the molecular basis for disease in nvCJD, CJD, and BSE?
An alpha prion chnges to a B-sheet conformation. The lack of a-prions is detrimental to neurons. Also, the change to B-sheets is induced in adjacent proteins, which results in vacuolization of tissue.
What is the clinical presentation of CJD and nvCJD?
Progreesive dementia, ataxia and myoclonus.