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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
acute disease
A disease or disorder that lasts a short time, comes on rapidly, and is accompanied by distinct symptoms.
Biological vector
an arthropod vector in whose body the infecting organism develops or multiplies before becoming infective to the recipient individual.
Chronic Disease
a disease that persists over a long period. The symptoms of chronic disease are sometimes less severe than those of the acute phase of the same disease. Chronic disease may be progressive, result in complete or partial disability, or even lead to death. Examples of chronic disease include diabetes mellitus, emphysema, and arthritis.
Communicable disease
a disease the causative agents of which may pass or be carried from one person to another directly or indirectly
contagious disease
easiely transmitted communicable diseases
direct transmission
The immediate transfer of an agent from a reservoir to a suceptible host
endemic disease
An infectious disease that occurs frequently in a specific geographical locale. The disease often occurs in cycles. Influenza is an example of an endemic disease.
enzootic disease
conditions affecting animals of a specific geographical area
epidemic disease
disease with sudden onset and widespread outbreak within a group
epidemiology rate
factors that determine the frequency and distribution of disease within populations
epizootic disease
Affecting a large number of animals at the same time within a particular region or geographic area. Used of a disease.
fomites
an inanimate object (as a dish, toy, book, doorknob, or clothing) that may be contaminated with infectious organisms and serve in their transmission
horizontal transmission
is the transmission of a bacterial, fungal, or viral infection between members of the same species that are not in a parent-child relationship.
incidence
the statistic that tells about the general health of a population
indirect transmission
Epidemiology A nonperson-to-person transmission of an agent–eg, parasite from a reservoir to a susceptible host by suspended air particles or by animate–vector or inanimatex–vehicle intermediaries
nfectious disease
a disease that is carried by a transmissible agent such as viral bacterial fungal or parasitic organisms
latent disease
is characterized by periods of inactivity either before signs and symptoms appear or between attacks
mechanical vector
an arthropod vector which transmits an infective organism from one host to another but which is not essential to the life cycle of the parasite
morbidity rate
the incidence rate, or the prevalence of a disease or medical condition
mortality rate
is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population
noncommunicable disease
NCD is a disease which is not infectious. Such diseases may result from genetic or lifestyle factors
pandemic disease
is a worldwide epidemic of a disease in humans
panzootic disease
(an outbreak of an infectious disease of animals) that spreads across a large region (for example a continent), or even worldwide. The equivalent in human populations is called a pandemic.
prevalence
total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population.
reservoir
an inanimate or animate object that serves as a longterm habitat and focus of dissemination for an infectious agent
reverse zoonoses
There are also diseases of people which are transmissible to animals
sentinel
early warning systems, for the community.
source of infection
an individual or object from which an infections is acquired
sporadic disease
A sporadic disease is one that occurs only occasionally in a population
subacute disease
not acute
transmission
transfer from one animal to another
vector
an animal (arthropod) that transmitts disease organisms
vertical transmission
transfer from one generation to another
zoonoses
a disease that can be naturally transmitted from andimals and humans