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33 Cards in this Set

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Functions to regulate the metabolic activity of cell.
Endocrine System
No ducts to transport secretions. Secrete hormones(chemical messengers) which are transported by blood to target organs.
Endocrine glands
Small compared to other organs: all endocrine tissue from 8-9 adults would wigh only
1 kg or 2.2 lbs
Steroid hormone or Thyroid Hormone act by this method.
Nuclear Receptors
Protein Hormones
Membrane Bound Receptors
Nuclear Receptors:

Hormone crosses the ____
Binds to ___
Hormone/receptor complex enter the _____
Activates or inhibits_____
Plasma Membrane
Intracellular Receptor
Nucleus
Transcription- mRNA synthesis
Membrane Bound Receptors:

Bind to ______
HOrmones are 1st messengers and activate 2nd messenger system in ___
2nd Messenger (cAMP) activates a specific ______ which activates or inactivates enzymes
Cell surface receptor
Cytoplasm
Kinase
Regulates most hormonal secretions; output of the system TURNS OFF the orginal stimulus; Goal is to prevent sudden and severe chagnes within the body
Negative Feedback System
Result of response enhances the original stimulus so that the activity (output) is sped up.
Positive Feedback System
Produces inhibiting and releasing hormones that regulate activity; produces ADH and Oxytocin
Hypothalamus
___ increase H2O reabsorption by kidney.
______ increase uterine smooth muscle; stimulus milk ejection in nursing mothers
ADH- antidiuretic hormone
Oxytocin
Pituitary Gland: (Hypophysis)
have 3 lobes _______
Adenohypophysis: Anterior Lobe, Intermediate Lobe, Neurohypophysis: Posterior Lobe
Extremely Tall; long arms and legs; in children
Gigantism(hypersecretion of growth hormone)
Increase width of bones not length; broad face/hands/feet; overgrowth of soft tissues-deep furrows in face; in adults
Acromegaly(hypersecretion of GH)
Extremely short; normal limb length to body thorax length; in children
Pituitary Dwarfism (hyposecretion of GH)
Increase BMR; required for normal development of NS
Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4 or Tetraiodothyronine
decrease blood
Calcitonin
Short stature, profound Mental Retardation
Cretinism (hyposecretion in children)
Lethargic, intolerant of cold, dry skin and hair, weight gain, simple goiter(enlarged thyroid)
Myxedema(form of hypothyroidism and hyposecretion in adults)
Increase BMR, intolerant of heat, expothalmic goiter, inability to concentrate, weight loss
Graves' Disease (form of hyperthyroidism and hypersecretion in adults)
t3 or t4 disorders
Cretinism, Myxedema, Graves' Disease
hormone imbedded in thyroid
parathyroid horomone
increase blood, Ca+2 removed from bone
parathyroid hormone
Hypocalcemia leads to tetany: loss of sensation, muscle twitches, convulsions
Hypoparathyroidism
Rare, Osteitis cytica fibrosa (severe) bones have a moth-eaten app and fracture easily
Hyperparathyroidism
Regulate Glucose metabolism and inhibits inflammatory and immue response, assist body to resist stressors
Glucocorticoids (cortisol, cant live without these)
Increase Na+ absorption, increase H2) reabsorption, increase blood volume and pressure
Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
limited secretions here, usually of no consequence in adults
Adrenal Sex Hormones
Enhance the response of sympathetic NS
Epinephrine, NOrpinephrine
COrtex Adrenal Glands:
Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, Aderanl Sex Hormones
medulla adrenal glands:
epinephrine, norepinephrine
increase blood glucose levels, alpha cells
Glucagon
Decreases blood glucose levels, beta cells
Insulin