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65 Cards in this Set

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Blood pressure forces fluid, ___________, across the wall of the glomerulus into bowmans capsule.
It contains:
water, glucose, ions, amino acids, vitamins
It is the _________ __________
______ L of this formed ea day
______ L of urine voided day
Most is ________
Glomerular Filtration
Primary Component
180
1.2
Reabsorbed
The movement of G.F. out of the renal tubule back into the blood is called _________.
Occurs all along the _______
Major Site of T.R. is ______
apprx ______ of G.F volume and nearly all glucose, amino acids, and vitamines are ____.
Most reabsorption of solutes is by ________
________ passively follws active reabsorption of solutes.
For most substances (except glucose) there is an __________ ________ to reabsorption
Tubular Reabsorption
renal tubule
Proximal concoluted tubule
60%
reabsorbed
active transport
H2O
Upper Limit
Transport of substances out of the blood into renal tubule is__________.
Principle site of tubular secretion is ________.
Urea, drug metabolites, H+ are __________
Tubular Secretion
Distal Tubule
added to blood
__________ refers to the opposite direction of GF flow through the _____________.
___________ is the increase of osmotic concentraton in Medulla from ion exchange between the _________.
Countercurrent; Loop of Henle
Multiplication; 2 limbs
Countercurrent Multiplier System and Water Conservation:
Mammal and bird kidneys produce concentrated urine by interaction between the __________ and the _________
This leads to the formation of an ______ _________ in the kidney.
Loop of Henle; collecting ducts
Osmotic Gradient
Interstitial fluid- surrounds nephrons- is isomotic to the blood;______ of blood; ___ MOSM
Cortex
Osmolarity
300
Interstitial fluid is hyperosmotic to the blood____
High osmotic concentrations in the medulla are produced by an ____________ in the _______
Medulla
exchange of ions
Loop of Henle
Loop of Henle-
Descending Limb: permeable to ______ and impermeable to _______.
Ascending Limb: impermeable to _______and ________ actively transport out.
Fluid arround the loop of henle become _______; water exits by ______
H2O; NaCl
H2O; NaCl
concentrated; osmosis
GF in the base of the loop becomes more ___________ and moves up the _________________ where more ________ is pumped out
concentrated
ascending limb
Na+
The effect of active ion transport in the ascending limb is multiplied as more water is withdrawn from the __________ and more a concentrated fluid is presented to the ______________ pump
descending limb
ascending limb ion
Collecting ducts:
_______ diffuses out of collecting duct adding to the high osmotic pressure in th ___________.
H2O ______ due to ______ surrounding the duct.
Urea; kidney medulla
exits; high solute
COLLECTING DUCTS CNTD:
Amount of H2O reabsorbed depends on the permeability of the walls of the ________ and _________.
Distal Tubule; collecting duct
controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) released by the pitutary.
Collecting duct
COLLECTING DUCTS CNTD:
increase of ADH, increase of permeability and H2O reabsorption.

Decrease of ADH and decrease of permeability and H2O reabsorption
concentrated urine produced.
Dilute urine produced.
Grainy--
Striated--
Primary site of tubular reabsorption--
Primary site of tubular secretion--
Cortex
Medulla
Proximal Tubule
Distal Tubule
Plasma and formed elements makes up ________.

_____: fluid inside Plasma Membrane and cell
_____: fluid outside cell includes Blood plasma and interstitial fluid.
Blood
Intracellular fluid
extracellular fluid
____: fluid portion of blood
____: fluid between cells
Blood plasma
Interstitial Fluid
Plasma:
_______ total blood volume
_______ of plasma is H2O
_______ makes up plasma proteins, glucose, amino acids, electrolytes, enzymes, antibodis, hormones, metabolic wastes, dissolved gases
55%
90%
10%
BLOOD CLOTS:
___: sticky substances
___: is required
___: Plasma proteins
___: forms clot
Platelets
Calcium ion
Prothrombin activator
Fibrin
___: fragments of megakaryocytes ( bone marrow stem cells )
Hemostasis
Erythrocytes:

5,000,000/mm3 blood
Transport O2 from ___ to __
Produced in the ___________
Lifespan:___
Circulating RBCs: ____
~ 200,000 HB molecules/ RBC
lungs to tissues
red bone marrow
120
no nucleus or other
organelles
______Oxygen transporting protein in RBC's.
4 polypeptide chains each bound to iron containing Heme group
Hemoglobin
_____ must exit blood vessels and enter connective tissue compartment to perform biological function.
7000/mm3 blood
Leukocytes
Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils
most numerous to least numerous
Contains specific granules in cytoplasm_____.

Phagocytes; 1st to enter area of inflammation_______.

Protection from parasitic worm infestations; limits inflammatory response( allergy; swelling)______

Mediate inflammatory response; Histamine and Heparin_______

____: increase of permability of blood vessels
____: anticoagulant
Granulocytes
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Histamine
Heparin
No specific granules____

Differentiate in bone marrow____

Differtiate in thymus___

The largest and have are phagocytes_______
Agranulocytes

B Lymphocytes

T Lymphocyte

MOnocytes
Arteries:

Transport blood ___ heart.
______pressure vessels
Thicker layer of ______ in wall compared to veins
away from the
HIGH
Smoothe muscle
Site of exchange between the blood and tissue of body______.
Wall is one cell thick.
Capillaries
VEINS:
Conduct blood____ heart.
____ pressure vessels
Some equipped with valves to prevent_____
back to the
low
backflow of blood
Larger in myocardium cardiac muscle layer in the____
Left ventricle
Mammals hearts:

4 chambers:
2 thin walled upper:_____
2 thick walled lower:____

Right side of heart conducts blood to _________ and is called ________

Left side of heart conducts blood to _______ and is called the _______
atria
ventricles

Lungs; Pulmonary Circuit
Rest of body; systemic circuit
____: between atria and ventricles.
Prevents blood from re-entering atria when ventricles contract
Atrioventricular Valves
Prevent blood from re-entering ventricles when they relax:________

___________: between right ventricle and pulmonary arteries.

___________: between left ventricle and aorta.
semilunar valves

Pulmonary semilunar valve

Aortic semilunar valve.
Cardiac Cycle: 3 phases

PHASE 1:
Atria
Ventricles

PHASE 2:
Atria
Ventricles

PHASE 3:
Atria
Ventricles
Systole
Diastole

Diastole
Systole

Diastole
Diastole
Has 5 regions;
1.specialized cardiac muscle cells;
2. capable of spontaneously depolarizing (contracting); 3. no input from nervous system required;
4. generates heart beat


___: Pacemaker of the heart; generates heart beat rate; 75 beats/min; 1ST REGION

OTHER 4 REGIONS:______
NODAL TISSUE
Sinoatrial Node
Atrioventricular Node; Bundle of His; L and R upper region of bundle branches; Purkinge Fibers
___: period from 1 heart beat to the next

___: contraction of chambers

___: relaxation of chambers
Cardiac Cycle

Systole

Diastole
Closure of A.V. Valves

Closure of Semilunar valves
1st heart sound
2nd heart sound
Respiratory system:

conducts ___ from lungs to tissues and ___ from tissues and lungs.
Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide
NASAL CAVITY:

Conducts_____ only; no gas exchange occurs
air is _____, _____, and _____.
Non-gaseous material is trapped in ______ secreted by cells.
_______ cells generate a current that conducts the mucus and trapped debris out of cavity
Air

warmed, moistened, and filtered

Mucus

Ciliated
Common passageway for air and food;
Function: air conduction only;
Surrounded by aggregaes of lymphoid tissues tonsils
PHARYNX
Function: air conductin only
contains vocal cords
opening into it is called the glottis
Layrnx
TRACHEA:

_____ only

Lined by _______ cells and ____ cells

Supported by ______ that hold the trachea open.

Ends of each cartilidge support connected by _________
Air conduction

ciliated; mucus secreting

C-shaped cartilidge plates

Smooth muscle
Air conduction only
arise from bifurcation of
trachea
right is primary one: is
wider and straighter than
left.
Cartilidge plates in wall are not C-shaped
BRONCHI(BRONCHUS)
CARTILAGE S. MUSCLE
______: c-shaped; bw ends of
support
______: plates; bw plates
______: absent; ring in wall
______: absent; absent
trachea
bronchus
bronchiole
alveolus
IOLES: smaller part
Air conduction only
Cartilidge replaced by smooth muscle
BRONCHIOLES
gas exchange region; no cartilage; 2 cell types
ALVEOLI(ALVEOLUS)
Simple squamous cell; gas exchange occurs across wall
TYPE 1 ALVEOLAR CELL
Secretes Surfactant which decreases surface tension in alveoli; prevents alveoli from collapsing and interfering with gas exchange
TYPE 2 ALVEOLAR CELL
composed of wall of alveolus and wall of capillary; site of gas exchange between lungs and blood
REPIRATOR EPITHELIUM
Inspiration
Expiration
Respiratory Movements
INSPIRATION:

diaphram __ and moves ___
Rib cage moves__ and __
These events lead to an __ in volume of lungs.
As vol __, pressure ___
Air enters lungs passively when ____ exceeds ___ in lungs
contracts; moves
up and out
increase
increase; decrease
atmospheric pressure; pressure
Diaphram ____ and moves __
Rib cage moves ___ and __
They lead to a ___ in volume of lungs
vol __; pressure ___
Air exits lungs passively when ____ in lungs exceeds ____
relaxes; up
down and in
decrease
decrease; increase
pressure; atmospheric pressure
PONS-> RESP. CONTROL CENTER-> LIMITS EACH INHALATION

MEDULLA-> RESP. CONTROL CENTER-> INTIATES EACH INHALATION

MEDULLA-> PRIMARY STIMULATION-> HIGH CONCENTRATION HYDROGEN IONS IN BLOOD
CONTROL OF RESPIRATION
-Cannot manufacture own food
-require already synthesized organic compounds of plants or other animals to supply materials for....
1. GROWTH
2. MAINTENANCE
3. REPRODUCTION
Heterotrophs
FUNCTIONS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
DIGESTION
ABSORPTION
TRANSPORT
ELIMINATION
Breakdown of food by chemical(enzymes) or mechanical means into sizes small enough to permit absorption by cells lining GI tract
Digestion
Uptake of digested food by cells lining GI tract
Absorption
Movement of ingested food through GI tract
Transport
Removal of undigested food residue
Elimination
Mechanical breakdown of food______

Taste receptors; aids in forming bolus and in swallowing_________

Salivary amylase(in saliva)begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates_______

Mass of chewed food mixed with saliva______
teeth

Tongue

Salivary glands

Bolus
Food and air pass through this zone; no digestion occurs
PHARYNX
-No digestion
-conducts food from phaynx to stomach
-peristalsis starts here
ESOPHAGUS
STOMACH:

_____: temporary folds in lining when empty
_____: smooth muscle oriented in differ planes
- produces churning movements when _______
-mixes food with ________ and mechanically breaks down food
-chemical digestion of proteins begins
-inner surface contains_____
-______ open into base of them
ruggae
In wall
Contracting
digestive enzymes
pits
gastric gland
Rhythmic, wave-like contractions when propel food forward in GI tract
Peristalsis
SMALL INTESTINE:
-chemical digestion of ____ and ____ begins and is completed.

-chemical digestion of ____ and ___ continues and is completed.
lipids; nucleic acids

proteins; carbohydrates