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30 Cards in this Set

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Convergent Evolution
ex: fins in fish and flippers in marine animals. Dolphin is a mamal not a fish
homoplasy
character state in common ancestor
outgroup
two are more close, the third is the outgroup that is less related.
Synapomorphy
-homologous trait shared by two or more taxa which derived from common ancestor.
cladistics
-klados, "branch."
a branch of biology that determines evolutionary relationships between organisms based on derived similarities.
Phyletic relationships for taxonomic groupings
1. monophyletic
2. paraphyletic.
3. polyphletic.
Phylogeny
is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms
monophyletic
if it consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants
polyphletic
more than one ancestral type, as a group of animals.
paraphyletic
contains some but not all descendants of the most recent common acestor.
phylogenetic systematics,
-clades
-based on common decent
-monophyling.
systematics
the study and classification of organisms with the goal of reconstructing their evolutionary histories and relationships.
evolutionary systematics
common decent as well as degree of evolutionary change from adaption.
-use mono and paraphyly
numerical taxonomy
-phnetics
-overall degree of similarity
-ignore e-volution and phylogony.
poriferans
-sessile
-simplest of animals
-filter feeders
-similarity to choanoflagellates
choanocytes
"collar cells"
-digestive system
apomorphy
a character state that occurs only in later descendents.
Plesiomorphic and apomorphic
used instead of primitive and advanced.
kingdom fungi
-multicellular eukayotes
-cell walls of chitin
-absorbs food called saprobic
kingdom plantae
-multicellular eukaryotes
-cell wall of cellulose
-autotrophic
newer system woese
3 domain system
1. bacteria, domain archaea, and eukarya.
Protozoan
-unicellular
-specialized organelles
-typically free living or symbiotic relationship
symbiosis
living together of two different species in an intimate relationship
endosymbiotic theory
-Believed large prokaryote ingested smaller eukaryot
-cells within cells
-took up existance and made cells together.
cynobacteria
begining of time where prokaryotic cells that could photosynthesize
commensalism
one benefits
protozoan feeding
-autotrophic
-heterotrophic
saprobic
contractile vacuole
-osmoregulation: keeping water balanced
-once its full it moves to edge and joins cell memembrane to expell.
phylum sarcodina-ameba
-use pseudopodia for locomotion.
-cytoplasmic spilling form pseudopods
-fagocytosis to eat food
-asexual reproduction through binary fission.
class rhizopoda
-naked amebas
-amebic dys3entery
-diahrea
-parasite in colon