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110 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
developed binomial nomenclature by classifying through morphology
Carl Linneus
what is the path of water in a sponge?
collar cells---incurrent canals---radial canals---spongeceol---osculum
-small in stature as well as being small in species #s
-all are marine
-radial symmetry
-gonads are gastrodermis
-bioluminescent
-monoecieus
Phylum Ctenophera
sensitive to touch (tactile), organs of equilibrium
statocysts
an extension on the medusa derived from the ceonosarc
manubrium
production where both the egg and sperm are mobile but the egg is larger than the sperm
anisogamy
long graceful tentacles
zooids
What is spongin made by?
mesenchyme cells
what happens in the zygotic life cycle
2 haploid cells will undergo plasmogamy and karyogamy which form diploid zygotes; these zygotes undergo meiosis to form four haploid cells
different shapes or body forms
polymorphic
What five things are used to make a phylogenetic tree?
1. fossil record(paleontology)
2. comparative anatomy
3. physiology
4. embryology
5. molecular biology
the cup shaped perisarc surrounding the blastostyle
gonotheca
the subkingdom parazoa contains only what phylum
Phylum Porifera
most simple, vase-like structure of a sponge
ascon
digestion that takes place in the GVC
extracellular digestion
true jellyfish
Class: Scyphazoa
two distinct layers of the body wall
epidermis and gastrodermis
fibrous protein that also helps maintain the shape of the sponge
spongin
digestive enzymes break down food in which type of digestion
extracellular
cells that bring food into the sponge
choanecytes (collar cells)
pore cells through which water enters
poracytes
how is locomotion accomplished
by floating and currents
Where does food begin digestion in the sponge?
food vacuole
separate male and female cells
dioecious
very long fishing tentacles
dactylozooids
What are spicules made by?
amebocytes
jelly-like material that separates the epidermis and gastrodermis
mesoglea
what did animals evolve from
2 protisten lines
living tissue making up the epidermis, gastrodermis, and GVC
ceonosarc
megaspores
females
broken pieces form into a new sponge
fragmentation
gonad are horse shoe shaped
Class: Scyphazoa
maintain the shape of the sponge
spicules
microspores
males
fusion of cells
plasmogamy
crawl around in the sponge, can pick up partially digested food, and distribute this food elsewhere in the sponge
amebocytes (wandering cells)
together constitutes a species
genus and specific epithet
class that consists of sea anemones and corals
Class: Anthozoa
part of gastrozoid that bears the mouth and tentacles
hydrenth
inside hollow opening of the sponge
spongeceol
shape that has 3-dimensional tersiary
leucon
seven characteristics of animals
1. multi-cellular organisms
2. heterotrophic
3. reproduce sexually producing large non-motive eggs and small flagellated sperm
4. have a number of kinds of cells
5. diploid, gametic life cycle
6. respond rapidly to stimuli because of muscular and nervous system
7. hold tissues together with an extincellular connective tissue matrix of collagen
What two things can the spicules consists of?
1. calcium carbonate
2. silicon dioxide
gametes formed by mitosis
zygotic cycle
body plan found in the most advanced animals, and has left and right halves
bilateral symmetry
small individuals which produce egg and sperm by mitosis
gametophytes
production of large nonmotive eggs and small mobile sperm
oogamy
the cilliate line of protozoans produced what subkingdom
Subkingdom Metazoa
the history and relationships of animal phyla
phylogeny
producing layers of what will eventually form medusa through asexual budding
strobilization
body plan that evolved first and is found in most primitive animals
radial symmetry
colonial, stationary, and secrete a calcareous sheath
corals
make their own light
bioluminescent
classifying an organism by DNA and protein
sequencing
3 Classifications of Sponge Shape
Ascon, Sycon, Leucon
what are the two types of protisten lines
flagellated and cilliate
photoreceptors, photosensitive organs
ocelli
what are tentacles used for
to capture food
fusion of nuclei
karyogamy
first true nerve cells
protoneurons
tentacles reach up to 30-60m long
cyanoa capillata
internal structure forms from mitosis
budding
the internal cavity of a cniderian
gastrovascular cavity (GVC)
the two well defined germ layers
ectoderm and endoderm
What are the four levels of organization?
cells--tissues--organs--organisms
structure continuous with the ceonosarc and contains the mesoglea, gastrodermis, epidermis, and assexually buds off medusae
blastostyle
What do sponges consists of?
just a few types of cells that are organized at the cellular level
feeding polyp with a single tentacle
gastrozooids
In scyphazoans, the gonads are derived from ?
gastrodermis
has invagunations, but is still vase-like structure
sycon
stinging organoids
nematocysts
four sided mouth
tetramenus manubrium
Which phyla have bilateral symmetry?
Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Amelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata
reproductive polyp
gonozooid
digestion that takes place in the gastrodermal cells
intracellular
flared out cup-like perisarc surrounding the hydrenth
hydrotheca
nonliving protein secreted which is hardened and protects the organism
perisarc
subkingdom produced by the flagellated protozoans
Subkingdom Parazoa
cells within sponges that form egg and spern
archaeocytes
lip on the inside margin of the bell of a jellyfish
velum
group of related organisms inhabiting an area and capable of producing fertile viable offspring
species
cells undergo meiosis to form four haploid gametes
gametic life cycle
If mesoglea becomes cellularized it forms the third layer fo the body wall called
mesoderm
lobes on the margin of a jellyfish
lappets
another name for the Portugese Man of War
Physalia
classifying by looking at chromosomes in metaphase
karyotyping
2 dimorphic stages of hydrozoans
polyp and medusa
life cycle plants usually undergo
sporic cycle
Man
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Specific Epithet: Sapiens
Sub species: Homo sapiens sapiens
phylum consists of comb jellies or sea walnuts
Phylum Ctenophera
What are the seven biological contributions of the Phylum Cnideria?
1. Intracellular specialization- 2 well defined germ layers and the body wall is composed of 2 distinct layers
2. have an internal cavity and one opening at the mouth
3. two types of digestion
4. tentacles or extensible protusions
5. provide first true nerve cells
6. sense organs
7. locomotion
8. polymorphic
9. nematocysts
2 ways sponges can reproduce asexually
budding and fragmentation
trigger tactile found on the cindacyte
cnidocil
In hydrozoans, the gonads are derived from ?
epidermis
smallest class within the Phylum Cnideria
Scyphazoa
individual feeding polyps
gastrozoids
gonads are x shaped
Class: Hydrozoa
sponges that contain both male and female cells are considered ________
monoecious
Sponges
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Parazoa
Phylum: Porifera
what are the three characteristics of protostomes
1. mouth forms then anus
2. spiral cleavage
3. determinate development
another name for the sporic cycle
alternation of generations
production of small mobile eggs and small mobile sperm
isogamy
gametes formed by meiosis
gametic life cycle
What are the four hydrozoans studied in lab?
Obelia, Hydra, Physalia, and Gonionemus
motile, produce polyps only no medusae
sea anemones
typical life cycle of animals; cells are diploid except for gametes
gametic life cycle
what are the characteristics of deuterostomes
1. anus forms then mouth
2. radial cleavage
3. indeterminate development
Which three hydrozoans are salt water?
Obelia, Physalia, and Gonionemus
Which phyla are radial symmetry?
Porifera, Cnideria, Ctenophora, Echinodermata
together are fertilization
plasmogamy and karyogamy