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252 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what do nervous systems do?
integrate internal and external information
what are neurons?
cells that send and receive electrical or chemical signals
what makes up the central nervous system?
brain and spinal chord
the --- nervous system is made of the nerve cells outside the central nervous system
peripheral
what do sensory neurons do?
interpret or bring information to the brain
what do motor neurons do?
cause response and take out information
what to interneurons do?
only connect neurons
on a neuron, what do dendrites do?
receive the signal
on a neuron, what does the nucleus do?
decides what signals mean
on a neuron, what does the axon do?
sends signal to terminal branches
on a neuron, what does the terminal branch do?
stimulates muscle or target cell.
where in the brain are neurons located?
cortex
what do glial cells do?
insulate neurons
what does myelin sheath do?
insulates nuerons
where is myelin sheath made?
aligodendroeytcs (CNS) and Schwann cells (PNS)
what do astrocytes do?
provide metabolic support to neurons and form a blood barrier in the brain
what are nuclei?
clusters of similar neurons
what does the hindbrain do?
homeostasis and coordination
what does the cerebellum control?
coordination and muscle synchronization
what does the medulla control? (4)
homeostasis, breathing, the heart, and digestion
what do pons control?
coordination and muscle synchronization
what three parts make up the hindbrain?
cerebellum, medulla, and pons
what does the forebrain control?
higher function/movement
what does the hypothalamus control? (4)
feeding, aggression, sex, and hormones
what do basal nuclei do control?
movement via dopamine
what does amygdala control? (5)
learning, memory, emotion, motivation, and reward
what parts make up the forebrain?
hypothalamus, basal nuclei, amygdala
the --- regulates specific forms of memory.
hippocampus
the two types of memory that the hippocampus regulates are -- and --.
1. location in space
2. encoding long term memories (not involved with emotional memories)
what does the amygdala control?
regulates recognition and learning emotions/fear conditioning
the prefrontal cortex conrols --, ---, and ---.
food, sexual behavior, and social behavior
what does dopamine control?
wanting
what do opioids control?
liking; ie) endorphins (virgins, cocaine, and pups)
every cell inside the --- ---- has a voltage called ---- ----.
plasma membrane/ membrane potential
the membrane potential of the inside of a cell is more --- than the outside of the cell.
negative
what is resting potential?
potential of a neuron that's not sending a signal.
the inside of a membrane cell is loaded with -- anions.
K+
the outside of a membrane cell is loaded with -- anions.
Na+
the electrical gradient of membrane cells has opposites ---.
attract
the chemical gradient of membrane cells has ions -- --- from other ions.
move away
both chemical and electrical gradients push --- into the cell.
sodium (sodium potassium pumps)
only electrical gradients pushes into/out of the cell.
into
only chemical pushes into/out of the cell.
out of
the electrochemical gradient is controlled by ---.
voltage gated channels
the electrochemical gradient channels are closed at rest. when they open, -- goes into the cell and -- goes out.
Na+/K+
what cause ion channels to open and close in the electrochemical gradient?
electrical signals from other neurons
what is depolarization of membrane cells?
a reduction in the magnitude of the membrane potential (when inside of a neuron becomes less negative)
what causes depolarization?
the opening of sodium channels
strength of depolarization depends on the -- of channels opened. this is called -- ---.
number/ graded potential
what is hyper-polarization of a membrane cell?
an increase in the magnitude of the membrane potential
in hyper-polarization, the inside of the cell becomes more --- by graded potential.
negative
a stimulus strong enough to produce a depolarization that reaches the threshold triggers --- ----.
action potential
what is action potenital?
the electrical signal that travels down the axon; all or none depolarization of the plasma membrane; carries information
what is the 0 stage of neural signaling?
resting state; Na+ and K+ channels are closed
what is the 1 stage of neural signaling?
threshold; Na+ channels open
what is the 2 stage of neural signaling?
depolarization; many Na+ channels open
what is the 3 stage of neural signaling?
repolarization; K+ channels open
what occurs during repolarization that is crucial to direction of neural signaling?
a refractory period
what is a refractory period of a nueron?
when the neuron is more negative that its resting potential and cannot fire
what is the 4 stage of neural signaling?
restoration of resting potential; K+ channels close
what are three animals that have toxins that target ion channels?
pufferfish block Na, scorpions scramble Na, and honey bees block K channels
why does action potential moves from the hillock to the terminal? (down axon)
the depolarization of one region of the axon stimulates depolarization of the next.
what two factors determine the speed of a neural signal?
axon diameter and myelin sheath
what are nodes of ranvier?
gaps between glial cells
what is saltatory conduction?
the process of action potential skipping from ranvier node to ranvier node.
what is the synapse?
the point of communication between neurons
what are the two types of synapses?
electrical and chemical
neurotransmitters are stored in ---.
vesicles
what is a neurotransmitter?
a chemical signal passes across a synapse
what happens when action potential reaches the axon terminal? (3)
1. Ca+ channels open
2. vesicles go through exocytosis
3. neurotransmitters cross synaptic cleft and bind to receptors
what are the two types of neurotransmitters?
1. ionotrophic
2. metabotrophic
what do ionotrophic neurotransmitters do?
BIND TO RECEPTORS IN ION CHANNEL, open ion channels, change membrane potential,
ionotrophic neurotransmitters are fast/slow.
fast
ionotrophic neurotransmitters bind to -- gated channels.
ligand
action potential in the neuron is fired depending on the ratio of --- and ---.
depolarization (excitatory post synapsis potential) and hyperpolarization (inhibitory post synapsis potential)
what do metabotrophic receptors do?
BIND TO RECEPTORS NOT IN ION CHANNEL, activate a signal to transduction pathway
metabotrophic receptors are fast/slow.
slow (and longer lasting)
neurotransmitters can be excitatory or inhibitory depending on the specific ----.
receptor
what is serotonin used to treat?
depression
what is GABA used to treat?
anxiety
what is reuptake?
re-use of serotonin which removes it from the synapse, causing depression
what is nitric oxide?
a gaseous neurotransmitter what increases blood flow
viagra blocks an --- the breaks down cGMP to counteract erectile disfunction.
enzyme
drugs --- the brain's natural neurotransmitter system.
mimic
neurotransmitters can be recycled and degraded, which also means that they can be --- by drugs.
blocked
drugs can reduce the number of --- in a neurons.
receptors
drugs can act at ionotrophic and metabatrophic ---.
receptors
drugs can be --- or ---- neutrotransmitters (hint:state)
solid/gas
what does the endocrine system control?
hormones
what is the master of the endocrine system?
pituitary gland
compare the nervous system to the endocrine system.
nervous: fast, short term, short distance.
endocrine: slower, longer effect, longer distance
what is a hormone?
a chemical messenger released into BLOOD STREAM and acts on distant target cells.
hormones bind to --- cells.
target
where are hormone receptors made?
in the plasma membrane or inside the cell.
what are the three classes of hormones?
amines, proteins/peptides, and steroids.
which hormone classes are water soluble?
amines and proteins
which hormone classes are lipid soluble?
steroids
water soluble hormones act on --- receptors because cells have lipid walls.
membrane
reception ---> transduction ----> -----
response
what is an example of a water soluble hormone?
glucogen
steroid hormones act on --- receptors.
intracellular
steroid hormones are made on demand, bind to receptors in the cell -- or cytoplasm, and are carried on carrier ----.
nucleus, proteins
an example of a lipid soluble hormone is ---.
testosterone
what are neurosecretory cells?
neurons that release hormones directly into the blood stream by means of the posterior pituitary gland
what does oxytocin regulate?
milk release and maternal activities; suckling creates positive feedback for milk release.
what does an antidueretic hormone regulate?
water loss in the body; acts on kidney to reduce water loss in urine
what are portal veins?
veins that connect anterior pituitary gland with the hypothalamus
what are 'releasing hormones'?
hormones that trigger the release of anterior pituitary hormones
pituitary hormones can act directly on targets like bone and muscle, and also on --- ---.
endocrine glands
what is negative feedback?
inhibition of a process
how does negative feedback work on the thyroid?
hormones released from the thyroid halt the release of thyroid releasing hormones into portal veins and thus the thyroid stimulating hormones
what are they thyroid glands?
two lobes surrounding trachea which regulates metabolism
what are the two hormones released from the thyroid glands to know?
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
what does a lack in body iodine result in?
a goiter
what are the two functions of the thyroid gland?
1. stimulate energy consumption
2. increase body heat production
what happens during hypothyroidism?
(think hyperthermia)
- slows down heart rate
-colder temps
-gain weight
what happens during hyperthyroidism?
-anxiety
-hot
-lose weight
-fast heart rate
negative feedback in the thyroid targets which organ?
the anterior pituitary gland
what does the pancreas do?
regulates fuel levels
where are pancreatic cells stored?
Islets of Langerhans
what are the two types of peptide hormones?
alpha and beta
what do alpha peptide hormones do?
produce glycogen and raise blood glucose
what do beta peptide hormones do?
produce insulin and reduce blood glucose
what does insulin do? (3)
binds to cell membrane receptors, signals transduction, and activates glucose transporters
what do glucose transporters do?
transport glucose into the cell
what is the cause of type 1 diabetes?
insufficient insulin production, beta cells destroyed by immune system
what is the cause of type 2 diabetes?
cells lose ability to respond to insulin
what are two appetite hormones?
leptin and grehlin
what does leptin do?
inhibits appetites, acts on hypothalamus, and goes up with an increase in adipose
what does ghrelin do?
stimulates appetite, acts on hypothalamus, and decreases with gastric bypass surgery
which glands release stress hormones?
adrenal glands
stress relief is ---
adaptive
which type of hormones are 'fight or flight'?
amine
which type of hormones are 'drought'?
steroid
what do parasympathic hormones do?
calm and rest
what do sympathetic hormones do?
cause stress, fight or flight
what does the adrenal medulla do?
controls the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine
what is the path that fight or flight takes?
hypothalamus --> spine ----> adrenal medulla
what do norepinephrine and epinephrine do?
amplify sympathetic response such as raise blood sugar, blood pressure, breathing rate, metabolic rate, and blood flow
what are some effects on specific body parts thatnorepinephrine and epinephrine have?
-dilate eyes
-inhibit pancreas
-relax bronchi
-stimulate glucose from liver
what is the path of long term stress?
hypothalamus --> anterior pituitary gland ---> adrenal cortex
in long term stress, glucocorticoid is responsible for --- ---.
negative feedback
what is dexamethasone?
synthetic cortisol
what are some effect of cortisol?
increase glucose and breaks down fats and proteins
decreases reproduction and immune function
how can stress damage the hippocampus?
excess cortisol causes cells to degenerate
why is stress harmful?
-no energy for immediate use
-problems w/ reproduction
-immune system suppression
- damage brain cells
what are the male and female gonads?
testes and ovaries
which type of hormones do gonads produce?
steriod
in gonads, brain recieves signal, gonadotropin releasing hormone released from hippocampus, ---- hormone released from anterior pituitary gland, and steroid production.
lueteinizing
what are the two main functions of the testes?
spermatogenesis and testosterone production
what does the epididymous do in the testes?
stores sperm
what do the seminiferous tubules in the testes do?
produce sperm
what do sertoli cells do in testes?
produce sperm; have receptors for follicle stimulating hormones
what do leydig cells do in the testes?
produce androgen; use luteinizing hormones to be produced
what is androgen?
testosterone and related hormones
--- steroids are sometimes used by athletes to enhance performance. These often include -- inhibitors.
anabolic; aromatase
what is an enzyme that converts testosterone into estrogen?
aromatase
what are two functions of the ovaries?
production of mature ova (eggs)
and hormone production
in the ovary, oocytes (immature eggs) mature in ----.
follicles
what happens during the follicular phase in the ovaries?
estradiol greatly increases and ovulation occurs
what happens during ovulation?
leutinizing hormone causes follicle to rupture, thus releasing an egg.
what happens in the luteal phase in the ovary?
progesterone is released by the corpus luteum, which degenerates an unfertilized egg.
the follicular phase in the ovaries involves a switch from --- to ---- feedback.
negative, positive
what are the six steps of ovulation?
1. low pH enables estradiol production
2. negative feedback keeps LH and FSH low
3. feedback switches to positive
4. the corpus luteium develops
5. FSH and LH are inhibitied
6. If no fertilization, the egg degenerates, menstruation
what hormone is secreted during pregnancy that maintains high CL levels?
chorionic gonadotropin
which pregnancy hormones does birth control mimic?
P4 and E2
what is the immune system?
the body's defense against foreign molecules, microorganisms, and abnormal cells
what is a pathogen?
a disease causing microorganism such as bacteria, virus, or parasite.
what is innate immunity?
rapids response to a broad range of invaders
what is acquired immunity?
develops after exposure to foreign substances
what is the first level of immune defense?
skin, mucous membrane, secretions (all present at birth)
what is the second line of immune defense?
leukocytes (white blood cells) such as phagocytic cells. Also, an inflammatory response and other proteins which provide non-specific defense
what is neutrophil?
60-70 percent of leukocytes self destruct during a fight against an invader (puss)
what is a macrophage?
big eater, large and long lived defense cell (about 5% of leukocytes) *formed from a monocyte
phagocytes and other leukocytes populate the --- system.
lymphatic
phagocytes bind to structures that are not found in normal body cells. They -- and form a --- and then fuse to a ---.
engulf, vacuole, lysosome
what are the steps of inflammatory response?
1. mast cells release histamine
2. vessels then dilate and leak
3. cytokine attract phagocytes
what are cytokines?
chemicals that synchronize immune function
what is the third line of defense in the immune system?
humoral and cell mediated response
what does humoral response do?
watches body fluids and secretes anti-bodies
what does cell mediated response do?
controls body cells and lymphocytes (cytotoxic)
is the 3rd line of immune defense present at birth?
no
what are antigens?
foreign invaders of the body
humoral defense is made of - cells.
B
what do B cells do?
produce anitbodies
what are the two types of T cells and what do they do?
kill infected cells (cytotoxic) and send signals for help (helper T)
where do T and B cells bind on antigens?
epitopes
receptors are ---- sits.
binding
in specific immune response, what happens during antigen recognition?
B and T cells are activated and bind to antigens
in specific immune response, what happens in cell division?
clones of needed cells are made (memory cells and effector cells)
what are the two types of clone cells made in the immune system?
memory and effector
what is colonal selection?
process in which lymphocytes target specific invaders by creating clone cells.
what are the two types (classes) of T cells?
class 1 MHC (cytotoxic cells)
class 2 MHC (specialized helper T)
what are MHC cells?
cells which discriminate between self and non-self cells
what are the 4 steps of cytotoxic C cells killing an infected cell?
1. bind to antigen
2. secretion of perforin which creates pores in cell
3. ions and water move into cell
4. T cell moves to other cells w/ same antigen
macrophages grab antigens and push them to the top of their ---.
membranes
helper T cells release ---- which initiates colonal selection
cytokines
what cytokines do?
stimulate T and B cells
which cell is attacked by aids in the immune system which disables T cells?
CD4
what happens in humoral immunity? (6)
1. antigen consumed by phagocyte
2. helper T cell engages and releases cytokines
3. B cells come
4. Helper T attaches to B cell
5. Clones of B cell are made
6. antibodies are released
what to antibodies do?
mark antigens for elimination which then enhance phagocytosis
immunological memory is ---.
acquired
during development, T cells are B cells w/receptors for self molecules are --- or ----.
inactivated/ destroyed
what happens during multiple sclerosis?
mylelin sheath is attacked by macrophages
what drug is used to treat autoimmune diseases?
cortisol
what dies beta interferon do?
inhibits destruction of myelin
what is islet cell transplantation?
injection of islet cells into the liver if a person w/ diabetes (type 1)
which hormone is often used to treat autoimmune problems?
cortisol
what is behavior ecology?
study of how behavior contributes to the differential survival and reproduction of organisms
what is success in evolutionary terms?
passing on genes
what are the two causes of behavior?
proximate and ultimate
what are proximate causes?
those which address specific genetic and physiological mechanisms of behavior. (ie seasonal breeding)
what are ultimate causes?
those which address evolutionary significance of behavior (ie seasonal breeders give birth in spring)
what is heritability?
the ability of a gene to be inherited
what is an innate behavior?
one that is developmentally fixed; it has a strong genetic influence (ie goose eggs)
what is a fixed action pattern?
a sequence of unlearned innate behavior that is unchangeable
what is a sign stimulus?
something that initiates fixed action patterns
what is learning?
a modification of behavior based on previous experience
what is habituation?
decrease in the response to a stimulus due to repetition which allows animals to ignore irrelevant stimuli
what is associative learning?
association develops between stimulus and response
what is classical conditioning?
involuntary response becomes associated positively or negatively with a stimulus that didn't originally elicit a response
what is operant conditioning?
animal's behavior reinforced by a consequence (reward or punishment) (ie: bears in a campground)
what is imprinting?
another type of behavior that causes young animals to recognize and approach their own species. occurs during "sensitive period"
what did Konrad Lorenz do?
raised baby geese
what is migration?
the seasonal movement of animals over relatively long distances
what percent of north american birds migrate?
50
what is piloting?
movement of animals from one landmark to another. typically over short distances (gray whales)
what is orientation?
movement of animals along a compass line (monarch migration) via the sun or magnetic fields
what is navigation?
the ability to orientate along compass lines to determine location in relation to a destination. (compass and map)
in navigation, the compass is --- but the map is ---.
innate, learned
what are five costs of migration?
energy, water, weather, predation, and staying up all night
what are two benefits of migration?
food and safety
what is the optimality theory?
predicts an animal should behave in a way that maximizes benefits and minimizes costs
what is foraging?
eating and the way animals recognize, capture, and search for food. (balances nutrition vs. cost)
what is teritorial behavor? what are the costs and benefits?
it's an area defended by a group or individual. cost: aggressive and marking behavior. benefit: access to resources
what is communication?
use of specifically designed signals or displays to modify the behavior of others
what are the three main forms of communication?
chemical, visual, and vocal
what is the function of the environment upon communication?
it's a filter/modifier
which chemical signals are long lasting?
those that mark territory (cheetahs)
which chemical signals are short lasting?
those that attract to food (ants)
what are two functions of auditory signals?
attracting mates and deterring rivals (long distance)
what are two functions of visual signals?
courtship and aggressive displays (short distances)
the same audio/visual cues that attract females also --- males.
deter
communication is an --- indicator of male quality.
honest
what is the handicap principle?
signals are expensive to produce, thus only high quality males can produce them, thus signals accurately convey quality of male.
what is an example of deceitful signaling?
female fireflies attracting and eating males of other species. also: eavesdropping such as bats and frogs.
what is sexual selection?
natural selection that increases mating success
what is intersexual selection?
members of one sex choose mates of other sex based on characteristics
what is intrasexual selection?
involves competition among members of the same sex
what is monogamy?
each individual mates with one partner
what is polygamy?
individuals mater with more than one partner
what are two determinants of mating system?
needs of young (dependent vs. independent) and certainty of paternity (external vs. internal)