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27 Cards in this Set

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Al-Aqsa Intifada
An uprising by the Palestinians, sometimes called the second intifada. The Palestinians blame a visit by Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount in September 2000 for sparking the violence, but the Palestinian Authority Communications Minister admitted the uprising had been planned after the failure of the Camp David summit in July 2000.
Al-Aqsa Mosque
Third holiest shrine in the Muslim world, situated on the Temple Mount (Haram al-Sharif) in Jerusalem.
(Heb., "going up") —A term used in Judaism especially for immigration to the land of Israel (although it can also be used for "going up" to the bema to read from Torah). The major waves of such emigration as part of the modern Zionist movement are usually thought of as the BILU movement: The First _____ (1882-1903), the Second _____ (1904-1913), and the Third _____(1919-1924). During the Nazi period, when Great Britain imposed its Passfield White Paper and severely limited immigration, immigration continued with the illegal smuggling of refugees.
Arab Nations
Those countries where Arabic is the principal language spoken. Islamic nations are those non-Arabic speaking countries where Islam is the dominant religion and often the source of the government's legitimacy. All the Arab nations have Islam as their official religion.
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by the British Government in 1917 recognizing the Jewish people's right to a national home in the land of Israel. Named for Lord Balfour who signed it on Britain’s behalf.
Ben-Gurion, David
This Polish Jewish immigrant to Palestine (1886-1973) became the first prime minister of Israel.
This name is an acronym for the phrase from Isaiah 2:5, “House of Jacob, let us go up in the light of the Lord,” that has been secularized and made to refer only to going up to the land of Israel (aliya). It refers to the first great migration of eastern European Jews to Israel from 1882-1903.
Cultural Zionism
The counterpoint to Herzl's political Zionism was provided by Asher Ginsberg, better known by his pen name Ahad HaAm (One of the People). Ahad HaAm realized that a new meaning to Jewish life would have to be found for the younger generation of East European Jews who were revolting against traditional Jewish practice. While Herzl focused on the plight of Jews alone, Ahad HaAm was also interested in the plight of Judaism, which could no longer be contained within the limits of traditional religion. Ahad HaAm's solution was cultural Zionism: the establishment in Palestine of small settlements aimed at reviving the Jewish spirit and culture in the modern world. Ahad HaAm believed that by settling in that ancient land, religious Jews would replace their metaphysical attachment to the Holy Land with a new Hebrew cultural renaissance. Palestine and the Hebrew language were important not because of their religious significance but because they had been an integral part of the Jewish people's history and cultural heritage.
The Dreyfus Affair
In 1894, in the aftermath of military defeat at the hands of Prussia, Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935), an assimilated Jewish captain in the French military, was tried for selling military secrets to Germany. He was found guilty and sentenced to internment at Devil’s Island. During the controversy surrounding the trial, anti-Jewish riots broke out in various French cities. Under pressure from French intellectuals who recognized Dreyfus was being used because he was a Jew as a scapegoat for France's military defeat, a retrial freed Dreyfus for time served. Eventually, Dreyfus was fully exonerated and reinstated as a major in the army. Jews worldwide were shocked that enlightened France and much of her citizenry could act in such a blatantly anti-Semitic manner. The lesson learned by many was that assimilation is no defense against anti-Semitism. As a result of the anti-Semitic overtones of the trial and much of the French press, Theodore Herzl, a reporter covering the trial, involved himself with the Zionist movement.
National anthem of Israel. The words were written by Naftali Herz Imber (about 1870). The melody is a folk song based on a tune which is known in many European countries in various
Palestinian civil uprising in Gaza and the West Bank, December 1987-September 1993, to protest Israeli occupation. A second uprising began in 2000 and was essentially over by the end of 2004.
A name given to the Jewish patriarch Jacob according to the etiology of Genesis 32.38. In Jewish biblical times, this name refers not only to the northern tribes, but also to the entire nation. Historically, Jews have continued to regard themselves as the true continuation of the ancient ______ite national-religious community. The term thus has a strong cultural sense. In modern times, it also refers to the political State of ______.
Israeli Arabs
Arabs who are citizens of Israel, including Palestinian Arabs who chose to stay in their homes rather than flee in 1947-1949, and other Arabs who were allowed to become naturalized citizens. Approximately 20 percent of the Israeli population are Arabs. Israeli Arabs enjoy equal rights with Israeli Jews in Israel. The one exception is that Israeli Arabs are not required to serve in the military, though some, including all Druze, do choose to serve.
The capital of Israel, in the east-central part of the country. King David made ________ the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, and the city has played a central role in Jewish existence ever since. The Western Wall inside the Old City of _________ is the part of the Temple Mount on which the ancient Temple stood, and is the holiest site in Judaism.
kibbutzim (plural)
Communal settlement in modern Israel. Originally, ______im focused on agriculture, but many of them are now are engaged in a variety of activities including tourism, high-tech ventures, and other industries.
The parliament of the State of Israel. Its name and the number of its members are based on the “_______ Hagdola” of the early Second Temple period. It is composed of 120 representatives of different political parties, elected for a four-year term.
Labor Zionism
The belief that anti-Semitism stemmed from the Jews distancing themselves from land of Israel. A.D. Gordon felt the way to national rebirth was to banish the exile felt in Jewish soul through labor on the land of Israel.
Land for Peace
Slogan often associated with the Israeli left, which actually reflects longstanding Israeli government willingness to negotiate a withdrawal from parts of the territory captured in 1967 in exchange for an end to the conflict with the Arab nations and the Palestinian people.
Law of Return
Legislation adopted in 1950 that allows all Jews the legal right to immigrate to Israel and immediately become citizens if they choose to do so. Every Jew settling in Israel is considered a returning citizen, and this law recognized the connection between the Jewish people and their homeland.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
Umbrella organization, a coalition of groups including the Fatah, the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and several others. The ___ was formed in 1964 by the first Arab summit conference as the embodiment of the notion of a Palestinian entity. It was originally controlled by the Arab states but after the 1967 war was taken over by genuine Palestinian nationalist groups and became autonomous. The ___’s longtime leader was Yasser Arafat, who died in 2004.
Palestinian Authority (PA)
The Palestinian autonomous government in the West Bank and Gaza areas from which the Israeli Defense Forces have redeployed since the 1994 Gaza-Jericho agreement and the 1995 Interim Agreement (“Oslo II”).
Palestinian Refugees
About 600,000 Palestinian (other estimates range form 500,000 to 800,000) fled Israel between 1947 and 1949, fundamentally because of the Arab states' rejection of the United Nation partition plan and invasion of Israel. The refugees fled out of fear of war and in response to Arab leaders' calls for Arabs to evacuate the areas allocated to the Jews until Israel had been eliminated. In a handful of cases, Palestinians were expelled. A majority of the refugees and their descendants now live in the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights and the West Bank. About 360,000 Palestinians fled eastern Jerusalem, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights during and after Israel's defensive 1967 War. Palestinians who fled in 1967 are technically considered displaced persons and do not have official refugee status. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency estimated that 175,000 of these 360,000 Palestinians were refugees from the 1948 War. The May 4, 1994, Gaza-Jericho Accord calls for Israel, the Palestinians, Jordan, and Egypt to form a Continuing Committee to discuss the 1967 displaced persons. The problem of the 1947-1949 refugees, on the other hand, is to be left for the “final status” negotiations under the terms of the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles of September 13, 1993.
Political Zionism
Stressed the importance of political action and deemed the attainment of political rights in Palestine a prerequisite for the fulfillment of the Zionist enterprise. Political Zionism is linked to the name of Theodor Herzl, who considered the Jewish problem a political one that should be solved by overt action in the international arena. His aim was to obtain a charter, recognized by the world leadership, granting the Jews sovereignty in a Jewish owned territory.
Religious Zionism
Based on a fusion of Jewish religion and nationhood, it aims to restore not only Jewish political freedom but also Jewish religion in the light of the Torah and its commandments. For Religious Zionism, Judaism based on the commandments is a sine qua non for Jewish national life in the homeland.
Sinai Campaign
War fought from October-November 1956 when Israel occupied the Sinai peninsula in reaction to Egyptian terrorist attacks and the blockade of the Straits of Tiran.
Six-Day War
War fought in June 1967 when Israel reacted to Arab threats and the blockade of the Straits of Tiran. Stunning victory over the Egyptian, Jordanian and Syrian armies.
Yom Kippur War
In October 1973, Syrian and Egyptian forces, assisted by other Arab nations, launched a surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the year for Jews. Although placed on the defensive for the first two days, Israel eventually was able to counter-attack and defeat the Arabs. An internationally-brokered cease-fire was established after three weeks of fighting.