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24 Cards in this Set

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Name 10 model organisms
E. coli, Yeasts, C. elegans, Dictyostelium, Arabidopsis, Drosophila, Frogs, Zebra Fish, Rodents, Humans
What are E. coli used for primarily?
-analysis of basic macromolecular and metabolic processes
What are Yeasts used for primarily?
The haploid genome of this simple eukaryote allows genetic analysis of many basiccellular processes
What are Dictyostelium used for primarily?
Used primarily in studies ofcellular motility and aggregation
The information we have learned about the basic processes of the cell are dependent upon the techniques we use to study with. What are the 6 important techniques?
1. Imaging Techniques
2. Cell Culture
3. Biochemical Techniques
4.Immunologic/Antibody based
5. Molecular Genetic Tech.
6. Biophysical Methods
What components must be considered in order to keep cell cultures from becoming too "artificial"?
l
What are freshly isolated cells called? What may they develop into?
"Primary culture". May develop into "cell line".
What should true cell lines be?
Euploid and sd have a limited replicative life span.
What is a Culture that undergos a "crisis" called? What does it become and what is it similiar to?
They become immortal. They are referred to as Transformed lines and are believed to be somewhat similar to cancerous cells
What are some approaches to adjusting culture conditions to better support specialized activity so that it remains more "realistic" to what actually happens in the natural environment?
1. Growth limitation via contact or nutrient withdrawal
2. Provide a bio-substrate
3. Creation of a defined medium w/special "factors" for growth and differentiation phases of the cultivation
What are 11 Molecular Genetic Techniques?
Reverse Transcriptase, Restriction Enzymes, DNA cloning, Hybridization, Polymerase Chain Rxn, DNA sequencing, Expression systems, Yeast 2-Hybrid system, Transgenics, Knockouts, Interfering RNA
What are the 7 Biophysical Methods?
1. Analytical Ultracentrifugation
2. Spectroscopic Analysis
3. EM Reconstruction
4. NMR-for analysis or structure determination
5. X-Ray Diffraction
6. Electrophysiological
7. Mechanical or Force measurements
What is the definition of the Genome?
The entire complement of genetic info (genes +) possessed by (and somewhate unigue to) each species of organism
Fragmentation, de-naturaization, and re-hybridization of euk. genomes suggests the presence of 3 classes of sequences, what are they?
1. Highly Repeated DNA Sequence
2. Moderately Repeated DNA Sequences
3. Non-Repeated Sequence Fraction
What are the 3 types of Highly Repeated DNA Sequences?
1. Satellite DNA
2. Minisatellite (VNTRs)
3. Microsatellites
What are the 2 types of Moderately Repeated DNA Sequences?
1. Sequences tt lack coding function: DNA Transposons, RNA tranposons (Lines & Sines)
2. Repeated sequences w/coding function
What are the 2 types of Non-Repeated Sequence Fraction?
1. Solitary genes
2. Duplicated genes
What is another name for HIghly Repeated DNA Sequences? Describe them.
"Simple Sequence Repeats". Composed of short sequences (1-500bp), wc repeat "in tandem" multiple times at a given location in genome.
Describe Satellite DNA
5-500bps in tandem repeats reaching 100kb in length. Tr uniform base composition often gives fragments containing tm a distinct density & thus ty band separately (as a satellite) in density gradients
Describe Minisatellite DNA
12-1--bp w/20-50repeats. The # of repeats can be somewt unstable over multiple generations. Thus ts "polymorphic" regions can be inherited like "alleles" of a gene. Tr variability in the pop allows tm to be used in "DNA Fingerprinting"-called VNTR analysis
Describe Microsatellite DNAs
Sequences of only 1-5bp repeated to a total of ~150bp. Prolly due to backward slippage during replication
How (ie single or in clusters) are Moderately repeated sequences that Lack "coding Function" organized throughout the Genome?
The bulk are not found in clusters, but rather are scattered through the Genome
Describe Solitary Genes
Sequences of protein coding transcripts tt are represented only once per haploid genome
Describe Duplicated Genes
Ts similar but not identical gene sequences usually reside w/in 5-50kb of one another and represent gene families