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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of CHF
CHF is a multi-system derangement that occurs when the heart is no longer able to eject the blood delivered to it by the venous system.

Excludes other processes tat indirectly involve the heart pump such as blood loss
Causes of CHF
1. Most often due to?
2. When is high output failure seen.
Most often due to the inablity of the heart to provide blood to the tissues and is usually low output failure.

High output failure is less commonly seen and is seen in situations of high tissue demands
CHF may involve which side(s) of the heart
can involve both, or unilaterally
What are the common causes of left sided CHF
1.Systemic hypertension
2.Mitral valve disease
3.Aortic valve disease
4.Ischemic Heart Disease
5.Primary myocardial disease
What are the common causes of right sided CHF
1.Most common cause is left ventricular failure.
2.Associated Pulmonary Hypertension
3. Causes w/o left sided failure:
a. Lung disease
b. Cor pulmonale
c. Pulmonic or aortic valve disease.
4. May also follow congenital HD with L-R shunts.
What are the three adaptive responses to CHF:
1. Neurohormonal stimulation
2. Hypertrophy of the heart
3. Volume overload
What neurohormonal response is seen
neurohormonal stimulation by increased catecholamines resulting in more forceful contractions (positive inotropism) and increased heart rate
Explain Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy is usually concentric which is defined as increased thickness of the wall w/o increased chamber size due to pressure overload
What does Volume overload cause?
Volume overload leads to eccentric hypertrophy and causes and increase in heart size and wall thickness.
Initially how does the body respond to CHF
Increased output with a high cost.
the heart muscle now requires additional O2 and becomes vulnerable to ischemic injury
molecular signal expression leads to impaired myocyte motility and increased myocyte death