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178 Cards in this Set

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Choanocytes
flagellated cells that sponge suspension feeders use to circulate water thru system of water canals
Spongocoel
Inner cavity of sponges
Ostia (Ostium)
Incurrent pores in the sponges body wall
Osculum (Oscula)
Open end of the excurrent pore on sponges
Mesohyl
Noncellular gelatinous layer in sponge wall
Spicules
Supportive structures located in Mesohyl, either calcareous or siliceous depending on sponge type
Spongin
Proteinaceous, located in Mesohyl
Archaeocytes
Totipotent ameboid cell located in Mesohyl, roam thru the sponge performing a variety of functions including reproduction and giving rise to spicule forming cells and choanocytes.
Pinacoderm
Outer layer of cell wall in sponge, consists of flattened cells (pinacocytes).
Pinacocytes
flattened cells located on the outerlayer of the Pinacoderm
Gemmules
Propagules produced asexually in some freshwater sponges. Resistant to desication, freezing and anoxia. Can lie dormant for long periods of time. When conditions improve, gemmules rise to adult forms.
Asconoid
Simplist body plan of sponges.
Syconoid
Choanocyte chambers occur as outpocketings from the spongocoel.
Leuconoid
Complex and numerous choanocyte chambers. Multi chambers occur in in series, one after another. Complex water current paths thru sponge. Absence of spongocoel. Mesohyl thickened.
Porocyte
Tube located in sponge body wall that opens at both ends. Ostium at external layer of wall, and other end opens to spongocoel.
Phylum Porifera
Class Demospongiae
Spicules SILICEOUS, never calcium carbonate
Spongin present
almost all members have LEUCONOID body form
80% of sponge species are members of Demospongiae
Phylum Porifera
Class Calcarea
Spicules composed of calcium carbonate
No spongin
Representatives of all 3 body forms are found in this class
Phylum Porifera
Class Hexactinellida
Glass Sponges
Spicules exclusively 6 rayed siliceous
Syconoid or leuconoid body form
Pinacoderm is replaced by syncytial outer layer (many nuclei contained w/in a giant single plasma membrane).
Diploblastic
2 cell layers but no organ system (characteristic of Cnidarians)
Epidermis
Outside layer of Diploblastic Cnidarian
Gastrodermis
Inside layer of diploblastic Cnidarians
Mesoglea
Acellular layer that separates the epidermis and the gastrodermis located in Cnidarians
Nematocysts
Stinging organelles that entrap, ensnare, poison and paralyze prey. Cnidarians have these.
Gastro Vascular Cavity GVC
Mouth opens into a single body cavity called the GVC. Present in both Medusa and Polyp body forms of Cnidarians.
Dioecious
Separate sexes
Planula Larvae
Class Scyphozoa
Dioecious gametes fertilize and form planula larvae that undergo settlement and metamorph into sessile polypoid scyphistoma.
Colony
Class Hydrozoa
(Zooids) Many individuals attached to one another.
Medusoid
Active swimmer
mouth opens to single GVC
mouth at bottom of animal
Tentacles which house nematocycts are on margin of bell
no anus
GVC lined by gastrodermis
GVC functions as hydrostatic skeleton and in circ of water thru animal to deliver nutrients, remove waste
Aboral end is a bell shape comprised largely of mesoglea
NOTE: 2 cell layers and mesoglea
Gastrodermis
Responsible for food digestion in GVC of Medusoid Cnidarian
Polypoid
Sessile form attached to benthos
Oral end on top, mouth surrounded by hollow tentacles
Aboral end on bottom of animal, BASAL DISC attaches to substrate
Hydrostatic Skeleton
Water in GVC serves as a form of support to Cnidarians
Also aids in locomotion, contraction of simple muscles in epidermis and gastrodermis move water around in cavity to result in movement of the animal
Contraction and expansion of tentacles and body wall
Important in entrapment of prey and movement of prey to mouth
Bell
Aboral end of top of animal is the BELL and comprised largely of mesoglea
Schyphistoma
Planula undergoes settlement and metamorphosis and forms a sessile polypoid called Schyphistoma
Basal/Pedal Disc
Bottom of Polyp that attaches animal to substrate
Strobilation
Scyphistoma undergoes STROBILATION, a form of asexual reprod. that gives rise to a juvenile jellyfish (ephyra)
Ephyra
Class Scyphozoa, Juvenile jellyfish that goes into mature medusoid jelly fish
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Jelly fish
Both medusoid and plypoid forms
Dioecious fertilize egg/sperm, planula larva, scyphistoma, strobilation, ephyra grows to adult
Gastrozooid
Class Hydrozoa, functions in feeding and digestion
Gonozooid
Class Hydrozoa, gives rise to medusae, functions in reproduction
Dactylozooid
Class Hydrozoa, functions in colony, defense and/or prey capture
Perisarc
Protective proteinaceous cover on colonies of Hydrozoa
Order Siphonophora
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Hydrozoa
Order Siphonophora
Portugese Man O War, Excellent examples of polymorphic colonies
Pharynx
Muscular mouth in Anthozoa
Mesenteries
divide up GVC into sections to increase digestive surface area and site of attachement for muscle. primary, second, tertiary, etc. Class Anthozoa
Aconita
Some groups of Anthozoa have acontia, filaments loaded with nematocysts that can emerge through holes in the body wall, used for defense
Subclass Hexacorallia
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Anthozoa
Subclass Hexacorallia
the true corals and sea anemones
Tentacles occur in mulitples of 6
Colonies never polymorphic
Subclass Octocorallia
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Anothozoa
Subclass Octocorallia
Soft corals, sea fans, sea pens, sea whips
always 8 tentacles, tentacles always pinnate (many lateral outfoldings like teeth on a comb). Colonies often polymorphic
Triploblastic
3 cell layers: epidermis, gastrodermis, mesoderm. Present in Platyhelminthes
Mesoderm
tissue layer between epidermis and gastrodermis. In flat worms its called the parenchyma
Acoelomate
Lack of body cavity, Platyhelminthes
Protonerphridia
organ used in waste processing and water regulation
cephalization
increased concentration of nervous tissue at the anterior end of the animal
Ocelli
eye spots non image forming photoreceptors
Tegument
cover on animal that is protective from harsh environment. Common with parasitic animals inside host animals
Scolex
Anterior end of animal, possesses suckers and hooks to aid in embedding and anchoring into host gut wall
Proglottids
below scolex, series of repeating segments. Gamete factories, exclusively for egg and sperm production
Class Turbellaria
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Class Turbellaria
Mostly free living carnivores, scavangers, detritivores
Protrusible pharynx often present
increased cephalization
nerve ganglia at anterior
ocelli
ventral epidermis cilliated, beat (for locomotion) thru thick mucus for desication prevention
Class Trematoda
Phylum Platyhelmenthes
Class Trematoda
ALL PARASITIC
Endoparasites of all vertebrate classes
Adults resemble turbellarians except lack cilliation, animal covered in tegument, and much of body is reproductive organs
Class Cestoda
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Class Cestoda
Tapeworms
non cilliated outer tegument, no mouth, scolex and proglottids
Corona
anterior end of animal, typifies rotifers, comprised of cilia that beat in organized fashion to give impression of a gear turning called metachronal beating
Metachronal
each cilium's beating is slightly offset from its neighbor, gives impression of gears turning
Mastax
Muscular swelling between the pharynx and esophagus, contains the trophi
Trophi
Inside the mastax, hard mucopolysaccharide structures
grinding and mashing of food
Flame Cells
mesh cups with a tuft of cilia on the inside of the cup. beating of cilia create a current that pulss water into the cup thru the filtering mesh and drives it down the tubule and eventually out of the animal.
Diapause
Rotifers do this; enter an extremely low metabolic state, usually as an encysted ferilized egg or embryo.
Toes
used for locomotion along with the corona - Looping. Sommersault head over heel
Phylum Nemeratea
Proboscis, coelomate, protostome
Coelomate
fluid filled body cavity surrounded entirely by mesoderm
however coelom in this phylum severly reduced to sac around the heart
protostomes - first hole in embryo forms the mouth
Protostomes
first hole forms in embryo state is the mouth
Mantle
dorsal epithelium forms the mantle which in most groups secretes a protective calcareous shell
Radula
chitinous band or ribbon of teeth present in the esophagus and used in food aquisition
Foot
Ventral body wall muscles develop into a locomotory or clinging foot
Ctenidia
Gills used for gas exchange
Nephridia
waste processing in mollusca
Gills in Bivalvia
Mantle cavity houses gills that are greatly enlarged in many species and used in food aquisition
Phylum Mollusca
Class Polyplacophora
Chitons, Dorsosventrally flat, 8 overlapping shells, protective shield
Operculum
Protective proteinaceous "trap door" that closes on the snail shell
Dextral
shell that opens on the right hand side, and curves counter clockwise
Sinistral
Shell that opens on the left hand side and curves clockwise direction
Torsion
Posterior half of body twists 180 degrees during development
Shiphon
Mantle cavity is often connected to outside of animal by a tubular folding of the mantle or a siphon.
Columella
The center portion of the shell that the snail wraps itself around
Apex
Tip of shell
Anal gill plume
On Opistobranchia (Nudibranchs) Mantle cavity and ctenidia gone. Instead of ctenidia, have feathery respiratory projetions around the anus
Rhinophores
Sensory projections on head region of nudibranchs
Phylum Mollusca
Class Gastropoda
Sublcass Prosobranchia
abalone, limpets, turban snails, very strong flat foot similar to chitons, shell soiling is absent or reduced, operculum often absent, shell is a shield, holes in shell improve water circulation
Order Archaegastropoda
Phylum Mollusca
Class Gastropoda
Subclass Prosobranchia
Order Archaegastropoda
Order Meso/Neogastropoda
Phylum Mollusca
Class Gastropoda
Subclass Prosobranchia
More diverse than archaeogastropoda
classic coiled shell and operculum
often presence of a siphon
presence of one ctenidia
Subclass Opistobranchia
Phylum Mollusca
Class Gastropoda
Subclass Opistobranchia
Sea slugs, sea hares, pelagic snails
shell highly reduced or absent
detorsion
secondary metabolites as defense distasteful
Subclass Pulmonata
Phylum Mollusca
Class Gastropoda
Subclass Pulmonata
freshwater snails and slugs
Gills absent, mantle tissue is highly vascularized, pneumostome used to keep mantle moist for gas exchange
Adductor muscles
shell held together by strong adductor muscles
Incurrent siphon
draws in water from outside
Excurrent siphon
return water in mantle cavity to outside
Food groove
food particles are captured by mucus coated cilia, moved to good groves at the bottom of each demibranch V
Mucus String
housed in the food groove moves particles along anteriorly for sorting at the labial palps
Labial Palps
Mucus strings moves food particles along anteriorly for sorting at the labial palp (sensory structures near the mouth).
Bysssus threads
Proteinacious threads that are glued to substrate as anchors
Umbo
Shell opens ventrally. Buldge on the dorsal end of the shell, earliest shell material deposited by animal.
Sublcass Lamellibranchia
Phylum Mollusca
Class Bivalvia
Subclass Lamellibranchia
Most species gills are highly modified to collect supsended food particles from the water in addition to serving as organs of gas exchange.
Tentacles/arms
Modified foot in cephalopods
used to crawl with or to sieze prey
Beak
radula modified to form a sharp beak
funnel
Siphon or funnel is a tubular folding of mantle tissue that connects the mantle cavity with the outside of the animal
fins
swimming fins, muscular elaborations of the mantle
stellate ganglion
giant nerve complex that serves the powerful mantle muscles that allow for strong swimming in squids
ink gland
secretes the pigment melanin, used for predator avoidance
Branchial heart
2 branchial hearts increase blood pressure as blood travels thru gills
Systemic heart
1 systemic heart, pumps blood thru rest of body
Subclass Nautiliodea
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Subclass Nautiliodea
Nautilus - chambered shell,, lives in outermost chamber, remaining chambers used for buyoancy control
Subclass Coleoidea
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Subclass Coleoidea
Convergent to fish - contains orders:
Sepioidea Cuttlefish
Teuthoidea Squids
Octopoda Octopus
Order Sepioidea
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Subclass Coleoidea
Order Sepioidea (Cuttle fish)
Bodies flattened dorsoventrally, cuttlebone, used to regulate buoyancy, all species are ep
Metamerism
Serial repetition of segments found in Annelida
Protomium
Anterior region of annelida
Pygidium
posterior region of annelida
Septa
Tissue in annelida that separates each segment
Nephrostome
ciliated opening in each septa in annelida that draws coelomic fluid from one segment to another.
Metameric Ganglia
Each segment has a ganglion that serves the muscles and sensory system in that segment
Deposit feeder
eat sediments and extract nutrients from them
suspension feeder
filter out small particles out of the water and ingest them
Veriform
worm shaped
Sinusoidal motion
locomotion in the shape of an S
Parapodia
Lateral body extensions that increase surface area for gas exchange, highly vascularized for functioning like gills
Acicula
Chitinous support rods in the parapodia
Setae
Chitinous or Siliceous bristles, extend from the parapodia
Elytra
protective over lapping plates
Errant
free moving and either swim in water or crawl on substrate
Burrowing
peristaltic contractions of body, waves of alternating contractions of circular and longitudinal muscles
Sedentary
Worms do almost no moving at all, many in the form of a tube
Phylum Annelida
Class Polychaeta
Polychaetes - parapodia and elytra, Setae and acicula
Phylum Annelida
Class Clitellata
Subclass Oligochaetes
highly metameric body plan
prostomium lacks sensory structures
Parapodia absent
setae are present but highly reduced
Phylum Annelida
Class Clitellata
All are hermaphrodites and possess a clitellum
Clitellum
Reproductive organ that secretes a protective cocoon around developing embryos
Phylum Annelida
Class Clitellata
Subclass Hirudina
leeches, metamerism is highly reduced
lack setae
suchers are present on anterior and posterior ends
ectoparasites
Phylum Nematoda
Triploblastic
Pseudocoelomate
unsegmented veriform
very small
Pseudocoel
presence of a fluid filled body cavity lined on the outside by mesoderm and on the inside of the gastroderm
Cuticle
Body encased in an elastic collagenous cuticle that is periodically molted
Tagmatization
specialization of groups of segments resulting in the fusion of the sements into tagmata
Tagmata
fusion of segments
head
thorax
abdomen
Appendages
Most tagmata bear multiple pairs of appendages
Exoskeleton
Distinguishing characteristics of the phylum, all individuals have a chitinous exoskeleton or cuticle that covers the entire body1
Molting/Ecdysis
Exoskeleton periodically shed
Ostia hemocoel
Heart possesses multiple holes or OSTIA that when open allow blood to flow into the heart. The Ostia close, the heart contracts and pumps blood out into the hemocoel or large blood space that occupies much of the volume of the animal. Blood eventually percolates back into heart thru ostia.
Hemocoel
large blood space that occupies much of the volume of the animal
Lens eye
eyes that are analougous with vertebrate eyes but smaller
Compound eye
like a fly eye
Ommatidia
compound eyes are made up of multiple identical units (ommatidia) that possess all the units necessary for vision. Brain assembles these images.
Antennae
Sensory structures
Uniramous
one branch in the appendage
Biramous
two branches in the appendages
Pereopods
Walking legs
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Chelicerata
Mostly arachnida
Cephalothorax
head and thorax fused into one component
Carapace
Fused cuticle covering cephalothorax region is called the carapace
5 Head appendages
1st & 2nd appendages - sensory antennae
3rd appendage - mandible
4th & 5th appendage - maxillae
Uropods
Most posterior appendages (on the sides)
Telson
Flattened extions of the abdomen, in the middle of the uropods
Biramous
Protopodite
Basal region of the appendage before the branch
Biramous
Exopodite
The external branch
Biramous
Endopodite
The internal branch
Hemocyanin
dissolved gasses, respiratory pigment in crustaceans
Nephridial canal
Saccules to kidney like canal to an excretory pore
Excretory pore
Pore where waste is excreted out, in the front by their face
Saccules
highly reduced blind ended coelomic spaces that communicate w/outside of animal thru nephridial canal and excretory pore
Green glands
In some decopods, the saccules is called a green gland
Phylum Arthropoda
Subclass Mandibulata
Class Crustacea
mostly marine but some fresh water
head, thorax, abdomen
cephalothorax/carapace
Biramous appendages
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Mandibulata
Class Crustacea
Sub class Malacostraca
Legs are often Chelate or clawed.
Chelate/Cheliped
Legas are clawed. Referes to a leg that is chelate. Used for prey capture and defense.
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Mandibulata
Class Crustacea
Subclass Malacostraca
Order Decapoda
Shrimp, Lobster, Crayfish
the first 3 pair of appendages on the thorax are MAXILLIPEDS and are used for feeding, then 5 pairs of walking legs called PEREOPODS
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Mandbulata
Class Crustacea
Subclass Malacostraca
Order Euphausiacea
super small shrimp, 3 cm
16 legs emmerging from thoraxx
FEEDING BASKET and BROOD POUCH!
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Mandibulata
Class Crustacea
Sub class Malacostraca
Order Stomatopoda
Mantis Shrimp
Beautiful epidbentihs burrowers
huge compound eye
huge raptoral thoracic appendages used to spear fish or club them
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Mandibulata
Class Crustacea
Subclass Malacostraca
order Isopoda
Pill bug
Dorsoventrally flattened
Absent carapace
eyes not on stalk
Thoracic and abdominal appendages essentally same = iso
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Mandibulata
Class Crustacea
Subclass Malacostraca
Order Amphipoda
Body is laterally compressed
absence of carapace
usually less than 1 cm in size
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum mandibulata
class Crustracea
subclass Brachiopoda
Daphnia, brine shrimp
primary zooplankton, freshwater, PROTRUBERANCE OF THORACIC APPENDAGE PROTOPOD, modified as a gill, thus named gill foot
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum mandibulata
class Classcrustacea
subclass copepoda
GIANT 1st antennae used as parachutes to hold animal still in the water while feeding, thoracic appendages used for swimming
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum mandibulata
class crustacea
subclass cirripedia
Barnacles, all are sessile and secrete a calcareous shell in which they live, two of the plate close together, sealing off animal completely, horacic appendages or CIRRRI are stuck out of shell where they are repeatedly brought in and out, capturing particles and moving them to the mouth
Ametabolous
"without change" - the immatures simply get larger with each succeeding molting
Hemimetabolous
Several distinct instars where nymphs undergo metamorphosis, no wings and then in final stage develop wings.
Holometabolous
Change from larvae, to pupal stage, to adults. Larvae do not have external wings and do not resemble adult stages.
Paurometabolous
Same as Hemimetabolous except nymphs reseume the adults and occur in the same habitats