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chapter 11?
Functional Anatomy and Support for Locomotion
Terrestrial vertebrates that have returned to the aquatic environment are ***.
secondary swimmers
Most primary swimmers are also *** swimmers. They use their *** to swim.
undulatory
trunk and tail
Most secondary swimmers are *** swimmers. They use their *** to swim.
oscillatory
tail or paired appendages
According to *** principal an object displaces *** and the displaced fluid ***.
Archimedes
a weight of fluid equal to its own weight
exerts an upwards force on the object.
Frictional and other forces in water are collectively called ***.
drag
The *** resist compressive forces generated as the animal pushes through the water... also prevents shortening and telescoping.
ventrum
Many reef fishes, freshwater sunfishes, and bass are *** swimmers.
transient
Many pelagic fishes, such as tuna and sharks, are *** swimmers.
periodic
Modes of swimming include;
acto - ancathos
anguiliform
carangiform
thuniform
ostraciform.
In chondrichthyans life is created by...
use of cartilage for the skeleton
storage of lipids in the large liver as energy reserves
use of TMAO and urea in the blood
Bony fishes have what method for lift in water?
lung or swim bladder that can be filled with gasses
Tetrapods - Weight is transferred to the pelvic girdle by one or more *** vertebrae and ribs.
sacral
Mammals have less/more sacral vertebrae than do amphibians and reptiles.
more
Tetrapods - Weight is transferred to the pectoral girdle by *** extending between the *** and ***.
a muscular sling(not bone)
trunk skeleton and the girdle
Although the *** and *** muscles are part of the sling the *** is the major component.
rhomboids and pectoralis
serratus ventralis muscle
The *** cartilage need not resist compression, but must be sufficiently flexible to allow the ribs to move during respiration.
costal
A few species (frogs, toads, and kangaroos) have become specialized for jumping or *** locomotion.
saltatorial
Saltators minimize *this* by shifting their center of mass toward the *** and strengthening the vert column by shortening the trunk and having large *** that firmly unite the vertebrae.
sacrum
zygopophyses
Wings evolved from the pectoral appendages of ***, birds and bats.
pterosaurs