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67 Cards in this Set

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Muscle cells develop embryonically by the elongation of *** cells to form ***.
mesenchyme
myoblasts
*** and *** become organized as myofillaments.
actin
myosin
Myoblasts become the adult muscle cells known as ***, or muscle fibers.
myocytes
Muscles can be classified many ways:
1) ***
2) ***
3) ***
mode of development
type of nervous control
microscopic appearance
When muscles are classified by appearance they are grouped into three categories...
1) Smooth
2) Skeletal
3) Cardiac
*** muscle tissue is the most common type of muscle in the body.
Skeletal
The cells, or *** fibers, of skeletal muscles are very large, multinucleated cells.
muscle
Each muscle fiber is known as a ***, a single cell with multiple nuclei.
syncytium
Muscle cell contraction is ***
neurogenic
*** muscle, is composed of moderately elongated cells that frequently branch
Cardiac
Each *** cell originates from a single myoblast, so it contains a single nucleus, located near the center of the cell.
cardiac
smooth
*** cells are interconnected with each other end to end, at specialized intercalated disks.
cardiac
Cardiac contraction is ***
myogenic
Cardiac contraction is triggered within a region called the pacemaker, or ***.
sinoatrial node
Cardiac muscle rhythm is modulated by *** control.
neurogenic
*** muscle fibers are elongated, spindle shaped cells.
Smooth
*** muscle appears to have a homogenous texture.
smooth
the two types of smooth muscle are...
Unitary smooth muscle
Multiunit smooth muscle
*** smooth muscle fibers are found in the walls of the digestive tract, uterus, and urinary ducts.
Unitary
*** smooth muscle fibers are found in the wall of many blood vessels, in the iris of the eye, and in the sperm ducts.
Multiunit
*** have spontaneous, rhythmic contractions that are usually stimulated by the stretching of the muscle fibers.
Unitary smooth muscle
Unitary smooth muscle contraction is considered ***
myogenic
Multiunit smooth muscle contraction is considered ***
neurogenic
all individual muscle fibers are enveloped by a thin layer of connective tissue called *** through which their blood vessels & nerves travel.
endomysium
Groups of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by their endomysium form small bundles, or *** held together by a layer of connective tissue called ***.
fasciculi
perimysium
The WHOLE muscle is encased by the ***.
epimysium
*** is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones
Periosteum
The *** is the point of attachment that remains fixed.
origin
The *** point is the point that moves.
insertion
By convention the origin is the *** end of the muscle, and the *** is the distal end.
proximal
insertion
Each motor unit consists of a *** and the ***
motor neuron
muscle fibers
Motor units can stimulate from *** to *** muscle fibers
12
2000+
During normal muscle activity, an ever-changing *** of active, relaxing, and quiescent motor units occurs.
rotation
The amount of tension or force that a muscle fiber can generate is a function of ***
the number of actin-myosin attachments that can be made at one time.
A muscle contraction that initiates a shortening of the muscle fiber is called an ***.
isotonic contraction
A muscle contraction in which tension develops, but little if any shortening of the muscle takes place is called an ***.
isometric contraction
Sometimes a muscle may increase in length as tension occurs, this is called a ***.
negative work contraction
Muscles that hold an animal or hold a part in a fixed place contract ***.
isometrically
The movement of a distal limb segment toward a more proximal one is called ***.
flexion
*** describes the movement of a part toward some point of reference, and *** is the opposite movement.
Adduction
abduction
*** muscles contain long, parallel fibers and have relatively broad attachments.
Strap-Shaped
*** muscles fibers lead to narrow tendons at the end of the muscle.
Fusiform
*** muscles contain short, diagonally arranged fibers that insert into tendons on one side.
unipennate
*** muscles contain short, diagonally arranged fibers that insert into tendons on both sides of a tendon.
bipennate
Muscle power is equal to the amount of *** a muscle can generate multiplied by the ***.
force
velocity of the contraction
The group to which a muscle belongs is best seen by looking at its *** and ***.
embryonic development
nerve supply
Most *** muscles lie in the “outer” tube of the body and are develop from myotomes that derive from embryonic somites.
somatic
*** muscles form most of the skeletal muscles of the body.
Somatic
*** muscles develop in the inner tube of the body and form the inner, splanchnic, layer of the body.
Visceral
*** muscles contribute to the walls of the visceral organs and the heart.
visceral
Somatic muscles can be subclassified into *** muscles located along the longitudinal axis of the body or *** muscles that develops and migrates into the limb buds.
axial
appendicular
*** muscles can be further subclassified according to the group of body segments from which they arise.
Axial
1) *** muscles form the muscles of the eye.
Extrinsic ocular
2) Branchiomeric muscles form the ***.
mandibular and branchial muscles
3) The first part of the trunk musculature are the *** and *** muscles.
epibranchial
hypobranchial
4) The remaining myomeres form the ***.
muscles of the trunk.
*** muscles always insert on the girdles or bones of the paired appendages.
Appendicular
The most rostral axial muscles belong to the *** group. These small, *** muscles arise from the wall of the orbit & insert on the eyeball.
strap-shaped
The *** muscles lie between the hypobranchial muscles, ventral to the pharynx, and the epibranchial muscles, dorsal to the pharynx.
branchiomeric
The *** and *** muscles work together in breathing movements, capturing food, and swallowing.
branchiomeric
hypobranchial
sometimes- epibranchial
name the three neck muscles
hypobranchial
branchiomeric
epibranchial
Fishes: The embryonic *** of the trunk and tail develop into a series of folded muscle segments, the myomeres, of adult fishes.
myotomes
The hypaxial muscles of vertebrates can be divided into three groups:
subventral group
ventral group
lateral group
Hypaxial muscles -
subventral group act on the *** and assist the *** muscles in supporting the body.
vertebral axis - epaxial
Hypaxial muscles -
A ventral group that includes the *** muscles that support and assist in lateral and ventral trunk flesion.
abdominal
A lateral group that lies on the *** and forms 3-4 layers within the ***.
flank
abdomen
Dorsal muscles of tetrapod pectoral & pelvic girdles are responsible for *** and *** the limbs. Limbs can be *** or *** during the *** phase.
abducting - extending
advanced - protracted - swing