Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are corticosteroids used to tx? (5)
1. inflammatory dzs
2. pruritic dzs
3. Immune-mediated dzs
4. Shock
5. Many others
Natural corticosteroids are produced by the_________
adrenal cortex
The release of corticosteroids is controlled by the what?
hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal axis
Corticosteroids used clinically are __________ produced
Classification of corticosteroids is based on what?
Predominant activity
Two groups of corticosteroids
mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids
What do mineralcorticoids do?
Regulate electrolyte and water balance in the body.
Group of drugs that inhibit the actions of histamines
Two major uses of antihistimines
dermatology and allergies
How is histimine released?
It is released from mast cells in the skin due to cell destruction (bee stings, colds, injury) or through certain histimine liberators (drugs such as morphine, x-ray contract media).
What can result from histimine release?
pruritis, hypotension, and contstriction of bronchioles
Tha major use of antihistimines is for what?
Canine atophy (allergies)
Approximately what percentage of allergies respond to a regimen of antihistimines?
What drug is the drug of choice for allergies? What else might be used?
Antihistimines are drug of choice, but other tx such as glucocorticoids may be used. Antihistimines are safer though, and thus the first choice.
Clinical uses of antihistimines (8)
pruritis, urticaria, laminitis, motion sickness, anaphylactic shock, reverse sneeze syndrome, heaves in horses, and upper respiratory tract infections
Side effects of antihistimines (5)
sedation/lethargy, CNS excitation, teratogenicity (birth defects), anti-cholinergic action (decrease in secretions), rare agranulocytosis
What is the most common side effect of antihistimines? When does it usually subside?
Sedation or lethargy, subsides after 2-4 weeks
What is a contraindication for antihistimines?
Anticonvulsant drugs - both are CNS depressants
Antihistimines are more effective when used preventively - why?
Because they do not displace histimine when it is already combined with receptors.
diphenhydramine trade name?
Benadryl (R)
Benadryl (R) generic name?
What are two of the most commonly used antihistimines?
diphenhydramine/Benadryl (R) and chlorpheniramine/Chlor-trimetron (R)
Which is not as effective for skin problems? diphenhydramine or chlorpheniramine?
chlorpheniramine/Chlor-trimetron (R)
What med is somewhat effective against heaves in horses?
chlorpheniramine/Chlor-trimetron (R)
Trade name for hydroxyzine HCL?
Ataratx (R)
What is the generic name for Atarax(R)?
hydroxyzine HCL
What antihistimine causes relaxation of skeletal muscles, has some analgesic effect, and fewer side effects than classic antihistimines?
hydroxyzine HCL
Trade name for terfenadine?
Generic name for Seldane(R)?
Trade name for dimenhydrinate?
Generic name for Dramamine(R)?
What antihistimine also has an antiemetic effect?
Trade name for pyrilamine maleate?
Generic name for Histavet(R)?
pyrilamine maleate
What are the two types of mineralocorticoids?
aldosterone and fludrocortisone acetate/Florinef(R)
What mineralcorticoid is natural?
What mineralocorticoid is synthetic?
fludrocortisone acetate/Florinef(R)
What is fludrocortisone acetate/Florinef(R) used for?
used as replacement therapy for aldosterone
What do glucocorticoids do?
Have anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant action, and also influence carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. They keep the body from doing bad things to itself at the site of injury.
Specific things that glucocorticoids do
reduce capillary wall permeability, stabilize cells/lysosome membranes, inhibit phagocyte chemotaxis, reduce cell response to histimine, and maintain micro-circultaion at an injury site
Two natural glucocorticoids
cortisol and corticosterone
Examples of synthetic glucocorticoids
prednisone, prednisolone, betamethasone/Betason(R), dexamethasone/Azium(R), methyprednisolone/Depro-medrol(R), prednisolone sodium succinate/Solu-Delta-Cortef(R)
Trade name for betamethasone
Generic name for Betason(R)
Trade name for dexamethasone
Generic name for Azium(R)
Trade name for methyprednisolone
Generic name for Depro-medrol(R)
Trade name for prednisolone sodium succinate
Generic name for Solu-Delta-Cortef(R)
prednisolone sodium succinate
What two synthetic glucocorticoids are often used interchangeably?
prednisone and prednisolone
What does the word "depo" mean?
What synthetic glucocorticoid is **very** fast acting and is often used for shock?
prednisolone sodium succinate/ Solu/Delta/Cortef(R)
What is the most common use of a corticosteroid?
allergic reactions
what are some clinical uses of corticosteroids?
allergic reactions, inflammatory conditions (reduces scar formation), shock, toxemia, lameness, Addison's, autoimmune dzs, inflammatory ocular dzs, lymphocytic neoplasias
Side effects of short term uses of corticosteroids
PU/PD/PP, wt gain due to PP and water retention, reduction in immune response, more susceptible to infections, inhibits the healing response, in high doses - gastric ulcers
Side effects of long-term corticosteroid use
Iatrogenic Cuchings dz, iatrogenic Addison's dz, decreased muscle mass, brittle bones
Contraindications of corticosteroids
pregnancy (may induce labor), diabetes, vaccinations, immature animals (slows growth and bone calcification), dehydrated animals, animals w/ actively healing wounds (slows healing), animals w/ severe infections, corneals ulcers - can cause cornea to rupture!
NSAID stands for?
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories
What does analgesic mean?
What does anti-pyretic mean?
Why are NSAIDs preferred over steroids?
Analgesic and anti-pyretic effects and fewer side effects
NSAIDs should be used with caution in _________ patients
Combining NSAIDs w/__________ should be avoided
OTC products should be checked carefully for any presence of _________
What is the "Triple A" effect of NSAIDs?
Anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, analgesic
NSAIDs are used as an analesic primarily for what type of problem?
musculoskeltal - arthritis and hip dysplasia
Advantages of NSAIDs over corticosteroids?
no steroidal side effects such as PU/PD/PP, no CNS suppression in order to provide analgesia, fewer serious side effects than those associated w/ steroids
Possible side effects of NSAIDS?
GI bleeding and ulceration (most common), blood abnormalities, clotting problems, decreased renal blood perfusion, possible hepatotoxicity
Contraindications of NSAIDs
kidney or liver dz, hypotension, dehydration, thrombocytopenia or clotting dzs, GI ulcerative dzs, corticosteroid use
flunixin meglumine
Banamine (R)
Banamine (R)
flunixin meglumine
Butazolidin (R)
Butazolidin (R)
acetylsalicylic acid
asprin/ Ecotrin(R) - coated
acetylsalicyclic acid/ Ecotrin
dimethyl sulfoxide
dimethyl sulfoxide
Rimadyl (R)
Naprosyn(R), Equiproxen(R)
Naprosyn(R), Equiproxen(R)
examples of some meds used to manage pain for osteoarthritis in dogs but are neither steroids or NSAIDs
Cosequin(R), PetFlex(R), Adequan(R), Arquel(R, Hyalovet(R), Seletoc(R)
Example of a muscle relaxant?
What is methocarbamol/Robaxin-V(R)
muscle relaxant
What NSAID is used for acute pain management (post operative soft tissue)?
flunixin meglumine/Banamine(R)
For what med is one-time dosing recommended due to the potential for gastric ulcers and nephro toxicity?
flunixin meglumine/ Banamine(R)
What is also known as "bute"?
What is used mostly as an anti-inflam in large animals - not recommended for small animals
phenylbutazone/Butazolidin(R) - bute
To what NSAID are cats **very** sensitive, should only be used by Rx from DVM, and if used, is used in VERY low doses for an extended period of time?
acetylsalicyclic acid/asprin/Ecotrin(R)
What med has many brand names, should be used in a buffered form, and provides cheap and effective tx of pain and inflammation?
acetylsalicyclic acid/asprin/Ecotrin(R)
What med will penetrate intact skin?
dimethyl sulfoxide/DMSO(R)
What med has a triple A effect but is used primarily as a universal solvent/carrier for other meds?
dimethyl sulfoxide/DMSO(R)
What med is only labeled for topical use?
dimethyl sulfoxide/DMSO(R)
What med will cause a garlic taste if touched?
dimethyl sulfoxide/DMSO(R)
What med is used for pain associated with degenerative joint dz or postoperative pain resulting from soft tissue or orthopedic pain?
What med is approved for oral use in dogs only in the US but is used in dogs and cats in Europe?
What med has an adverse effect rate of less than 1%, but if toxic effects occur in both liver and kidneys, the results could be fatal?
What med stays in dog plasma 5x as long as in humans, thus accurate dosing is difficult and it is not recommended for use in dogs?
What med is labeled for use in horses and humans?
naproxen/Naprosyn(R), Equiproxen(R)
Besides carprofen/Rimadyl(R), what other med is labeled for use in dogs for osteoarthritis?
What meds are given IM or inter-articular, labeled for horses and dogs, reduces degenerative changes induced by non-infectious or traumatic joint dzs and promotes activity of the synovial membrane?
Adequan(R) or Hyalovet(R)
What med is approved for dogs, cats, and horses is used primarily to tx back problems but also used to tx disk problems, sprains, muscle spasms, etc? What kind of med is it?
methocarbamol/Robaxin-V(R), it is a muscle relaxant
What two NSAIDs have the potential for serious side effects and are not used in vet med?
acetominophen and ibuprofen
One _______ could be fatal to a cat
Symptoms of Tylenol/acetominphen poisoning
facial edema, cyanosis, depression, anorexia
Fever is a change in body temp from ________ causes, v. hypothermia which is from _________ causes
fever-internal, hypothermia - external
What are pyrogens? Examples?
Chemical agents that cause fever - bacteria, viruses, drugs, fungi, immune complexes, leukocyte proteins, and damaged tissue
What might happen if fever becomes excessive (over 107)?
damge to liver, kidneys or CNS, cardiovascular collapse and shock
3 anti-pyretic drugs?
buffered asprin/acetylcyclic acid, phenylbutazone/Butazolidin(R), flunixin meglumine/Banamine(R)
2 supplemental tx of fever?
fluids, steroids (severe cases)
With use of what med should you keep small animals well hydrated?
flunixin meglumine/Banamine(R)