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113 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Give two examples of fat soluble vitamins
A & D
Do we have deficiency problems with fat soluble vitamins?
No we store them easily
What form of vitamin A is the preform? the active form?
Retinol
What form of vitamin a is a precusor and needs to be altered?
beta carotinoid
What causes macrocytic anemia?
lack of folate
What do the blood cell divisions look like in macrocytic anemia?
one less division, so you get half the cells...they are large
What things provide vitamin a in the retinol form?
cow things, animal things...cheese, milk, eggs, meat
Retinol is preformed....it comes in as retinol and put right into....
...chylomicron
Beta carotine has to be changed before we put it in teh chylomicron. Why can we not over load with it?
Because to change it, we use an enzyme and we are limited with this enzyme
90% of preformed vitamin a (retinol) is stored where?
Liver....so eating liver could be toxic
What are the forms we use Vitamin A in?
Retinal & retinoic acid
Which specific vitamin works with the eyes?
retinol...vitamin A
Everything else is retinolic acid
What does vitamin A do to cells?
help differentiate cells
what is xyroxthalomy? what vitamin is it related to?
dry eye syndrome b/c cells didn't differentiate because of lack of vitamin a
what problem happens with elderly with lack of vitamin a?
macular degeneration
With lack of vitamin a, why does the skin and digestive system crack?
differentiation with epitheliation doesn't happen
What is the toxicity level of Vitamin A?
100X the RDA in one dose?
Other than being fat soluble, what other word can describe vitamin A?
antioxidant
What is Vitamin D necessary for?
calcium binding protein
If calcium levels in body are low, vitamin D helps us absorb more calcium three ways...
1. From our Diet
2. Reabsorb more calcium from kidney nephron
3. Helps to reabsorb calcium from bone
What is Vitamin D acting like when it helps us encourage absorption of calcium?
like a hormone
What is problem in Rickets?
Lack of vitamin d causes softening of bones in adults b/c we can't absorb the calcium to build our bones
Best source of Vitamin D
milk
Can Vitamin d be toxic?
Yes. you can get hypercalcification in soft tissues (kidney stones)
What is Vitamin E best known for?
an antioxidant...functions for cardiovascular disease from fats that are oxidizied
What are the Antioxidant vitamins?
A,C,E, selenium, phytochemicals
What is Vitamin E necessary for?
immune functions & nerves
Do we see Vitamin E deficiency in US?
Hard to make someone deficient in Vitamin E, but if you have malabsorption of fat deficiency then you might see it.
What kind of vitamin is Vit E?
fat soluble
antioxidant
What does Vitamin E have to do with babies?
Vitamin E shot given to premies, b/c it doesn't cross the placenta
What kind of anemia does lack of vitamin E cause?
hemolytic anemia
What is problem with cooking with Vitamin E?
High heat kills it...french fries
What is the phrase to know about Vitamin K?
...blood clotting vitamin
What is dependant on the availabiltiy of Vitamin K?
blood clot cascade is dependant on vitamin K and calcium
Do we see a lot of deficiencies of Vitamin K?
No, they are rare, but if there is a lipid malabsorption problem, then you might see it.
What is a good source of Vitamin K?
green leafy vitamins
What is a non food source of Vitamin K ?
We can make it in our bodies...in our intestines
What is the relationship with babies and Vitamin K?
does not cross the placenta, so they give the baby a shot of vitamin K at birth to make clotting factor. All babies get it.
Do we see toxicity with Vitamin K?
rare, but can happen with pills...so we don't sell Vitamin K pills
What kind of vitamin is Vitamin K?
fat soluble
What are the fat soluble vitamin?
ADEKa
What is problem with beriberi?
Lack of vitamin B1...thiamin....nerve damage lack of energy to nerve affects heart function, mental confusion. Not affecting us, but with Weirniski korsakoff syndrome...alcohol problem
What is a good source of thaimin?
Pork
What is problem with having a pork chop for dinner if you are looking to have Thiamin, B1?
Heat destroys it, so you have to cook it low and slow and long
Is there a toxicity with B1?
No
What do we use Riboflavin B2 for?
To make energy from CHO F P
What are the problems with a deficiency of Niacin? B1?
The three D's...dementia....dermatitis....diarrhea
Why are the three d's the problems with lack of Niacin, B1?
b/c not making enough energy and we don't have enough so these are high requirement areas with high turn over.
What allows us to make Niacin?
tryptophan
Where did we find a deficiency in US with Niacin?
deep south, with diet of cornmeal, fat back and molasses. Corn has not tryptophan that allows us to make Niacin
What is the biggest problem with water soluble vitamins?
Getting them in our body...
What should you make sure you do when you cook water soluble vitamins?
cook in as little of water as possible preferrably steam them because vitamins leak out in the water
What is the key word that describes how B vitamins work?
co-enzymes
In order to change pyruvate into acetylco-a, what three vitamins/minerals do you need?
Biotin
Thiamin
Panothynic Acid
What is another name for Vitamin C?
Asorbic Acid
What is another word to describe how Vitamin C works?
co-enzyme
What is the RDA for Vitamin C for a woman?
75mg
What is teh RDA for Vitamin C for a male?
90mg
What do you add to the RDA for Vitamin C if you are a smoker?
35mg
What is the upper limit for intake of Vitamin C?
2000mg
Describe the absorption of Vitamin C
We absorb the first 100mg then we only absorb 25%
Deficiency in Vitamin C causes the skin to...
break down and have pinpoint hemorrhages
What amount of Vitamin C do we need to protect us from scurvy?
10mg/day
What does Vitamin C do to our watery fluid?
Protects them. For a healthy immune response
Vitamin C and Iron. What is the relationship?
Vitamin C enhances our absorption of Iron
Vitamin C and Vitamin E

What is the relationship?
Vitamin C restores Vitamin E to preoxidative state.
Who does Vitamin E protect?
A
Who does Vitamin C protect?
E
Excess vitamin c could lead to this incorrect lab analysis of your blood
positive glucose test
Who inspects water?
EPA
Who inspects well water?
Who inspects bottled water?
department of health, if you call them

no one if it doesn't cross state lines
What mineral is the most abundant in our body?
calcium
What does Calcium enhance the absorption of?
Vitamin D (b/c it makes a calcium binding protein)
What rate is calcium absorbed as adults?

as children?
30% as adults

75% as children
What two things would decrease calcium absorption?
oxilates (compound that binds the calcium

phosphorus (if it is high in blood, then we don't absorb calcium)
What stops the reabsorption from bone? (a hormone)
Calcatonin
What hormone in women stops the reabsorption from bone?
estrogen
If blood calcium drops, what does pth do?
increases absorption from diet

secretes less from kidney

reabsorbs from bones
Who is the bone breaker?
PTH parathyroid hormone
Who is the bone make?
calcitonin
What cycle needs calcium?
visual cycle
What is calcium's role with muscles?
necessary for muscle contraction and relaxation. Tetany is too much calcium
What does calcium do to the cardiovascular department?
raises blood pressure
Who stimulates the osteoclasts? what do the osteoclasts do?
PTH, they break bone
Where is type 1 osteoporosis affecting?
tribecular bones wrists, vertebrae
Where is type two osteoporosis affecting?
all bones. this is elderly one.
What is the only known function of iodine?
to make thyroxine in thyroid gland
How is iron absorbed?
poorly
Which iron Meat or Veg/Grain is more readily absorbed?
Meat
What is hemochromotosis?
genetically inherited disease. Baby can't escrete iron & it gets toxic.
What really in simple terms is the visual cycle?
How we use Vitamin A to see
What vitamin do we use up in every cycle of the Visual cycle? (we need to have a continual source of it)
Vitamin A
List the vitamins and minerals that are needed for the VISUAL CYCLE.
Vitamin A

Niacin

calcium
What do we start the SYNTHESIS OF VITAMIN D with?
Acetyl co-a
Where do we finish the job of making Vitamin D in our skin?
The Kidney
What stimulates us to make Vitamin D in our skin?
PTH
So the pathway for making Vitamin D starts in the skin, ends in the kidney, and has a midway point in the ____________.
Liver
What is necessary for the liver to change vitamin D?
Niacin
The blood clotting cascade is dependant on Vitamin _____.
K and also on Ca
Vitamin E also works as a _______________.
antioxidant
A lack of Vitamin ____ can cause nerve damage.
B12
Other than preventing nerve damage, what other function does vitamin b12 have in the body?
changes inactive to active form
We need sufficient folate to make _______.
DNA
I cause the first break in epithelial cell in artery that starts plaque build up.
Homocysteine...a by product of eating meat
Having ______ helps to get homocysteine out of your body because it changes THF -CH3 to THF
B12
Hemolytic anemia is caused from a lack of __________.
babies...they get a shot of vitamin E
Macrocytic anemia is caused from a lack of __________.
Folate or B12
Microcytic anemia is caused from a lack of
Iron deficiency
why do babies get a shot of Vitamin k at birth?
clotting factor
lack of vitamin c causes the breakdown of
collagen
what vitamin helps to make amino acids?
b6
Who is folate's best friend?
b12
List the b vitamin other names
thiamin
riboflavin
niacin
b6
b12