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104 Cards in this Set

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Define lab animal
any animal used for obtaining information that is usually applied to a different species
What are the two main uses of lab animals?
1. Investigation of human dz
2. Production of biological substances for prevention/control of dz
What is the ASPCA?
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
What is the HSUS? What is their stance of using animals in research?
Humane Society of the United States
-recognizes the need for animals in research but lobbies for humane treatment and restraint in unnecessary use of animals
What is AALAS? What so they do?
American Association of Laboratory Animal Science - is an organization of individuals and institutions concerned w/ the production, care, and study of lab animals
What is ILAR? What are they a source of?
Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources - resource for the humane care and standards of lab animal use
What is the AAALAC? What do they do?
American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Care - establishes standards that labs adhere to in order to be a reputable lab It is voluntary, but a good institution will get this accreditation.
The concept that an animal used in research is selected for it similarities (physical/behavioral) to the species that the research is being applied to is known as what?
Animal model
Why are animals used as models?
1. Decreases # of unknowns
2. Humans live too long for research
3. Can't keep humans in a sterile environment
4. Humans have unclear genetics - too many variables
Four criteria to evaluate when selecting and animal model
1. Similar characteristics to species research applied to
2. Size
3. Productivity
4. Longevity
What is the biological science dealing w/ heredity called?
Genetics
What is heredity?
xmission of characteristics from parent to offspring
What are the four breeding systems for lab animals?
Random (out-bred), Inbreeding, Hybrid, Mutants
Describe random/out-bred breeding system
Non-related animals bred together w/o consideration to their ancestry.
Describe inbreeding system of lab animal breeding
related animals bred together to produce genetically similar animals w/ traits that do not vary from generation to generation
How many generations of consecutive brother-sister or parent-offspring mating is need to produce animals that are genetically pure (99.8%)?
Minimum of 20 generations
What is a hybrid?
First generation from crossing two different inbred strains
What is a mutant?
Has a specific mutation from random or inbred breeding - vy expensive, usually poor-doers, ideal for specific research
What is the biological science dealing w/ producing & maintaining animals w/ known microorganisms in a controlled environment called?
Gnotobiology
Main concept of Gnotobiology?
germ-free
Two reasons to use gnotobiotes?
1. Provides guaranteed dz free animals for research
2. All microorganisms present in the animal have been defined (researcher knows exactly what is present)
What is SPF?
Specific Pathogen Free - Animals have diverse microorganisms but **not** specific pathogens that researcher does not want them to have
What are five factors that should be considered when designing a research facility?
Temperature, ventilation, lighting, noises, and bedding
When it comes to cleaning cages, clean off the what first? Why?
Crusty stuff! Many cleaners are neutralized by organics
What are some methods identifying animals in a research lab?
Cage cards, non-permanent fur marking w/ markers/paint, ear-notching, tattoos, microchips, banding, and collars
Where do all mice come from?
Mouse-fanciers breeding in the 1800's
What is the most common research animal?
Mice
Four uses of mice?
Pets, vax challenges, infectious dz studies, and xplant studies
What does sick mouse syndrome look like?
Mouse has a ruffled/disheveled coat, hunched back - just plain doesn't look well
Are mice diurnal or nocturnal?
diurnal
What is best food for lab rodents? Why?
Lab block - nutritionally balanced
How do you know a baby mouse is nursing?
Skin is transparent - can see the milk in the stomach
What is unique about cardiac puncture compared to other blood draws?
Is terminal
What are some blood collection methods for mice?
Tail bleeding, cardiac puncture, orbital sinus, vena cava puncture, saphenous bleed
What is the amount of blood that can be safely removed from an animal?
1% of the body weight in grams (1 gram = 1cc)
What is the IP injection technique for most lab animals?
Hold animal dorsally, tilt animal down toward it's head, and draw back to make sure nothing hit
Fur chewing vice in mice also called what?
Barbering - usually no injury involved
3 external mouse parasites
fleas, fur mites, lice
What are the two most common internal parasites in mice?
tapeworm and pinworm
What two mouse dzs covered are zoonotic?
Tyzzer's Dz, Hanta Virus
Why are mammary tumors so common in mice?
most of body is made up of mammary tissue
Name some dzs that affect mice
Tyzzer's Dz (Z), Epidemic diarrhea of infant mice, Sendai virus, Chronic murine pneumonia, and Hanta Virus
What dz is xmitted to humans by contact w/ mouse urine & feces but lab mice don't have?
Hanta virus
Three uses for rats
pets, research, food
Rats have no ______________
gall bladder
Rats are not able to ________
vomit
Rats have very sensitive ________ and very acute __________
retinas, hearing
Are rats diurnal or nocturnal?
nocturnal
Rats & guinea pigs are coprophagic - what does this mean and why do they do it?
Eat their own feces, to regain nutrients
Bleeding techniques for rats
lateral tail vein, cardia puncture, orbital sinus, vena cava puncture
Why don't you need to fast a rat before anesthesia?
They don't vomit
What is the name of the rat condition characterized by secretions from the eyes that turn red on contact w/ air?
Chromodacryorrhea (red tears)
What is ringtail in rats caused by? What does it look like?
Caused by humidity levels lower than 25-50% in the housing area. Looks like a rubberband has been placed on the tail - edema and necrosis
The incisors on many rats are open-rooted. What does this mean?
constantly growing
What causes overgrown teeth in rats? What doesn't cause it?
Not caused by lack of things to chew on, rather from a malocclusion. A normal bite will wear down the teeth naturally
What dz conditions/parasites do rats share w/ mice?
tumors, mites, lice, pinworms, tapeworms, sendai virus, Tyzzer's dx (Z)
What condition is common in pet rats?
obesity
Any anorexic rat should have what examined?
Its teeth
What are the three main breeds of guinea pigs?
abyssinian, peruvian, and english
What are two uses for guinea pigs?
research, pets
What is a factor to consider when thinking of a guinea pig for a pet?
The are very allergenic
Why is it recommended that a guinea pig be taken away from its owners when it is worked on?
They are very vocal - can be distressing for owners
Why are male guinea pigs separated?
they tend to fight
What might guinea pigs do when excited?
stampede
_____________ of guinea pigs are established early in life. If changed they may become anorexic and depressed
food patterns
What vitamin needs to be supplemented in a guinea pig's diet? Why?
Vitamin C - scurvy
What are signs of scurvy?
won't form/damages connective tissue - lameness, teeth fall out
Guinea pigs should be mated before what age? Why?
10 months - pelvic bones fuse around this time and babies won't pass
How are most lab rodents sexed?
Anal-genital distance
Why are bleedings and other techniques difficult on guinea pigs?
They stress easily and can die from it. Owners should be warned.
What are some bleeding techniques for guinea pigs?
nail clip, cardiac puncture, jugular, cephalic, saphenous, vena cava
What do guinea pigs often do under gas anesthesia?
Hold their breath
What is something that should be kept in mind when rx antibiotics for guinea pigs and hamsters?
antibiotic toxicity - can cause fatal enteritis and septicemia
What guinea pig intestinal parasite is potentially zoonotic?
Cryptosporidium
What guinea pig dz condition can cause alopecia on the head and is zoonotic?
ringworm
What is lyphadenitis AKA in guinea pigs? What are the signs?
Lumps - lymph nodes (usually in neck) swell and abscess
What are two obstetrical problems in guinea pigs?
heat stroke, dystocia
What condition are female guinea pigs over three years of age predisposed to?
Cystic calculi/bladder stones
What is the common name of hepatic lipidosis? What lab animal is it seen in? What is it caused by?
Fatty liver dz, guinea pigs, caused by anorexia
What guinea pig condition is usually a dental problem and is shown w/ saliva soaked fur under the chin and lethargy?
Slobbers
What guinea pig condition is an infection of the toes & pads of the feet and is typically seen in obese pigs on wire or abrasive bedding?
pododermatitis
Why is it best to get hamsters at a young age?
Because they are aggressive - need to get at a young age and handle a lot to keep them tame
Are male or female hamsters for aggressive?
female
What lab animal has large cheek pouches that extend as far back as the scapula?
Hamsters
What are the dark brown patches bilatterally along the back of hamsters called? Are they more prominent in males or females?
Flank gland, males
What lab animal hates to be disturbed while sleeping and are known to be biters?
Hamsters
What lab animal is nocturnal w/ short periods of diurnal activity?
hamsters
What lab animal can go into a states of pseudohibernation?
Hamster
What lab animal is a solitary and very active animal?
Hamster
What is present on the day of ovulation for a hamster? What should this not be mistaken for?
An odiferous discharge will be released - should not be mistaken for a bacterial infection
What is the name of a small zoonotic tapeworm that hamsters can have?
Hymenplepis nana
"Transmissible ileal hyperplasia" is commonly known as what? What lab animal gets it? Signs?
Wet tail, hamsters - wt. loss, lethargy, diarrhea, wet/ulcerated perianal area
Whhat condition could affect the cheek pouch of hamsters?
Cheek pouch impaction - seeds get stuck in there and can germinate out of the mouth or through the pouches
In which lab animal is crystaluria comman and they are also susceptible to stones?
Hamsters
What lab animal at an old age often developes heart dz
Hamsters
What lab animal is capable of condensing urine 1000x or better
gerbils
What animal is overall the cleanest and least odiferous of all rodents? Why?
gerbil - they don't pee much
What lab rodent is illegal in CA because of feral potential?
gerbils
What lab rodent is has a high heat tolerance, very efficient re: water consumption, and has a yellow-tan midventral scent gland that is prominent in males?
gerbils
What lab rodent is primarily diurnal, likes to burrow, and will stomp rear feet if territorially threatened or interrupted during coitus?
gerbil
What lab rodent must not be picked up by the tail? Why
gerbil - will deglove
What lab rodent is said to form monogomous pairs?
gerbils
In what lab rodent do epileptiform seizures strike 20-40% of the population over 2 month of age?
gerbils
Bald nose is a dz condition of what lab rodent?
gerbils