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99 Cards in this Set

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A thoracic radiograph is taken at peak inspiration or expiration. Why?
Inspiration - to allow complete radiographic visualization of the lung tissue.
Why are two radiographic views taken of one location?
Xrays are two dimensional images of a three dimensional structure. Taking another image from a different angle could show something that was missed on the previous image.
List two types of tissues sensitive to radiation.
Bone tissue, lymphatic tissue, gonadal tissue.
What does MPD stand for? Define it.
Maximum Permissible Dose - the max dose of radiation that a person may receive in a given period.
What anatomical position is contraindicated in patients that have difficulty breathing?
Ventrodorsal view
List three radiation safety rules
wear protective apparel, stay out of primary bean, wear dosimeter, stand upright at end of table when restraining
What is the main advantage for the tech in taking a VD view of thorax v. DV view.
Theoretically easier to control the patient in the VD position.
Abdominal radiograph - taken at peak inspiration or expiration?
expiration
What does ALARA stand for?
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
When an animal is in right lateral recumbency, through what side does beam enter and exit?
enters left, exits right
For a VD view of the cervical spine, the head is extended (cranially/caudally), and the forelimbs are pulled (cranially/caudally).
head cranially, forelimbs caudally
True or false: It is contraindicated to manually extend a patient's front and rear limbs for a spinal view if the patient has a spinal column injury.
true
When taking a radiograph of the humerus, what two other anatomical parts must be included in the view?
Shoulder and elbow
What are the two methods for radiographing a lateral view of the scapula?
1. With the scapula placed dorsal to the vertebral column
2. With the scapula superimposed over the lung field
When taking lateral views, the affected limb is placed up or down?
Affected limb is placed down, closest to the cassette
Besides lateral, what other view is used for the scapula? Generally describe the positioning.
Caudocranial view. The animal is placed dorsally and the forelimbs are extended cranially.
Scapula lateral view - beam center and measurement point
Beam - middle of scapula

Measure - thickest area of scapula
Scapula craniocaudal view - beam and measurement
Beam - middle of scapula

Measurement - scapulohumeral joint (thickest spot)
Shoulder lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ affected limb down, closest to cassette. Affected leg extended cranial and ventral to the sternum. Opposite limb pulled caudodorsal and neck extended dorsally.
Shoulder lateral view - beam and measurement.
Beam - over shoulder joint

Measurement - thickest area over shoulder joint
Shoulder craniocaudal view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency w/ both limbs extended cranially. Want humerus almost parallel to the cassette. Many want to expose both shoulders simultaneously for comparison.
Shoulder craniocaudal view - beam & measurement.
Beam - over shoulder joint

Measurement - over shoulder joint (armpit)
Humerus lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ the affected limb down. Affected limb pulled cranioventral direction and opposite limb pulled in a caudal dorsal position.
Humerus lateral view - beam & measurement.
Beam - center of humerus

Measurement - thickest area over shoulder joint
Humerus caudocranial view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency w/ the forelimbs extended cranially. Area of interest as parallel to the cassette as possible to avoid distortion. Also include the shoulder & elbow
Humerus caudocranial view - beam & measurement
Beam - middle of humerus

Measurement - thickest area over the shoulder region
Humerus craniocaudal view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency w/ affected limb pulled caudally until humerus is parallel to the cassette. Move limb slightly away from thorax.
Humerus craniocaudal view - beam & measurement
Beam - middle of humerus

Measurement - Thickest area over shoulder region
Elbow craniocaudal view - positioning
Sternal recumbency, affected limb extended cranially, head elevated and positioned away from the affected limb.
Elbow craniocaudal view - beam & measurement
Beam - over elbow joint

Measurement - Distal humerus (thickest area)
Elbow lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ affected limb down. Head & neck extended in a slight dorsal direction and unaffected limb pulled in a caudodorsal direction
Elbow lateral view - beam & measurement
Beam - over elbow joint

Measurement - Distal humerus
Elbow flexed lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ affected limb down. Carpus pulled toward the neck region flexing the elbow.
Elbow flexed lateral view beam & measurement
Beam - middle of elbow

Measurement - distal humerus
Radius & ulna lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ affected limb down and centered on the cassette.
Radius & ulna lateral view - beam & measurement
Beam - Middle of radius & ulna

Measurement - over elbow
Radius & ulna craniocaudal view - positioning
Sternal recumbency, affected limb pulled cranially, w/ radius and ulna pulled centered on the cassette. Head elevated & pulled to the side.
Radius & ulna craniocaudal view - beam & measurement.
Beam - middle of radius & ulna

Measurement - over distal humerus
Carpus lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ affected limb down & centered on the cassette. Opposite limb pulled caudally out of the view.
Carpus dorsopalmar view - positioning. Stressed view?
Affected limb extended cranially. Head elevated and turned away. Stressed view - digits pressed down/spread out by paddle or ruler.
Carpus dorsopalmar view - beam & measurement
Beam - middle distal row of carpal bones

Measurement - middle distal row of carpal bones
Metacarpus-phalanges dorsopalmar view - positioning
Sternal recumbency w/ affected limb extended. Tape can be used to flatten the digits. View should include carpal joint & tips of digits.
Metacarpus-phalanges dorsopalmar view - beam & measurement
Beam - middle of metacarpal bones

Measurement - middle of metacarpal bones
Metacarpal-phalanges lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ affected limb down. Can isolate a digit & hold in place w/ tape. View should include carpal joint and tips of digits
Two general positioning guidelines for spinal views
Spine should be as parallel to the cassette as possible & the spinal spaces should be perpendicular to the cassette.
Cervical spine ventrodorsal view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency, head extended cranially, front limbs pulled caudally alongside the body.
Cervical spine ventrodorsal view - included in view
Base of skull, all cervical vertebrae (7 of them), & the first few thoracic vertebrae.
Cervical spine VD view - beam & measurement
Beam - Over C4-5 space

Measurement - Over C5-6 space
Cervical spine extended lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency, head & neck extended cranially (apply gentle traction), front limbs pulled caudally.
Cervical spine extended lateral view - beam & measurement
Beam - C4-5 space

Measurement - thoracic inlet (C7)
Cervical spine flexed lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency, front limbs pulled caudally, gauze tied around mandible and head is pulled caudally toward the humeri. DO NOT HYPERFLEX THE NECK!
How many cervical vertebrae do cats & dogs have?
seven
How many thoracic vertebrae do cats & dogs have?
13 - same as the number of ribs
How many lumbar vertebrae do cats & dogs have?
seven
How may sacral vertebrae do cats & dogs have?
three
Cervical spine flexed lateral view - beam & measurement
Beam - C3-4 space

Measurement - thoracic inlet (C7)
Cervical spine hyperextended lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency, front limbs pulled caudally, head & neck extended in a dorsal direction until resistance is met.
Cervical spine hyperextended lateral view - beam & measurement
Beam - C3-4 space

Measurement - thoracic inlet
Thoracic spine VD view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency, front limbs pulled cranially, rear limbs in natural position.
Where is the sternum positioned in a VD view of the thoracic spine?
Superimposed over the thoracic spine
What should thoracic spine views include?
All of the thoracic vertebrae from C7 to L1
Thoracic spine VD view - beam & measurement
Beam - Over level of caudal view of scapula (T6)

Measurement - At highest point of the sternum
Thoracic spine lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ front & rear limbs moderately extended in opposite directions away from the body. Elevate sternum w/ sponge to prevent rotation
Thoracic spine lateral view beam & measurement
Beam - over T7 body

Measurement - at 7th rib
Thoracolumbar spine VD view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency, front limbs extended cranially, hind legs in natural position. Sternum over vertebrae.
Thoracolumbar spine VD view - beam & measurement
Beam - over thoracolumbar junction

Measurement - thoracolumbar junction
Thoracolumbar spine lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ front & real limbs pulled in opposite directions away from body. Elevate sternum to prevent rotation.
Thoracolumbar spine lateral view - beam & measurement
both over thoracolumbar junction
Lumbar spine VD view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency, front legs pulled cranially, rear legs in natural position. may need trough under thoracic region
What should lumbar spine views include?
Entire lumbar spine from 13th thoracic vertebrae to the first sacral vertebrae
Lumbar spine VD view - beam & measurement
Beam - over L4 body

Measurement - At level of L1 body
Lumbar spine lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ front & rear limbs in moderate extension. Elevate sternum to prevent rotation.
Lumbar spine lateral view - beam & measurement
Beam - Over L4 body

Measurement - level of L1 body
Sacrum VD view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency w/ rear limbs in natural position
Xray tube positioning for sacrum radiograph
30° angle toward the head and centered over the sacrum
What should sacrum view include?
L6 body to iliac crest
Sacrum view - beam & measurement
both at level of sacrum
Caudal spine VD view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency w/ rear limbs in a natural position. Tail is extended in a caudal direction and centered on the cassette. May need to tape down a curly tail
Caudal spine lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency w/ tail extended caudally. May need to raise cassette on a foam block in order to keep tail parallel to tabletop.
Pharynx lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency, forelimbs pulled caudally. Head & neck extended cranially and placed in a true lateral position.
What should be included in a lateral view of the pharynx?
Lateral canthus of the eye through C3 body.
Pharynx lateral view - beam & measurement
Beam - over pharynx
Measurement - at level of base of skull
Thorax DV view - positioning
Sternal recumbency w/ thoracic vertebrae over the sternum. Front limbs pulled slightly forward to prevent elbows from tucking under thorax. Head lowered between forelimbs.
Why is the DV view of the thorax preferred for the evaluation of the heart?
Heart in near normal suspension in this position.
What is "the rule" when it comes to radiographing the thorax?
The thorax is inside the rib cage so if you include all of the ribs, you will get the entire thorax.
Thorax DV view - beam & measurement
Beam - caudal border of scapula

Measurement - caudal border of scapula
What view is preferred when a full view of lungs is necessary?
VD view - provides more complete view
What position is contraindicated for Patients in respiratory distress?
VD view
Thorax VD view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency, forelimbs pulled cranially, rear limbs natural, sternum over thoracic spine.
Thorax VD view - beam & measurement
both at caudal border of scapula
Thorax lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency, front limbs pulled cranially, rear limbs pulled slightly caudal, head extended slightly and sternum elevated to be even w/ spine.
Thorax lateral view - beam & measurement
both at caudal border of scapula
Abdomen VD view - positioning
Dorsal recumbency, front limbs kept out of the view, rear limbs natural
What should be included in an abdomen view?
Entire abdomen from diaphragm to femoral head
Abdomen VD view - beam & measurement
Beam - caudal aspect of 13th rib (cats 2-3 fingers caudal to 13th rib)

Measurement - caudal aspect of 13th rib
Abdomen lateral view - positioning
Lateral recumbency, hind limbs pulled caudally
Abdomen lateral view - beam & measurement
Beam - 13th rib (cats, 2-3 fingers caudally)

Measurement - 13th rib
View of radius & ulna should include what?
Elbow and carpal joint
Metacarpal-phalanges view should also include what?
Carpal joint and tips of digits