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45 Cards in this Set

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Sante's equation
2x tissue thickness(cm)+ SID + grid factor = KvP
Where should patella be positioned when taking a craniocaudal view of the femur?
between femoral condyles
What position is pt in for a caudocranial view of the stifle joint?
sternal (rear leg is stretched out behind pt)
What should be included in view of femur?
Hip joint, femur, and stifle
What should field of view include in film of tibia and fibula?
stifle, tibia & fibula, and tarsal joint
Where is the beam center and measurement for a lateral or craniocaudal view of the femur?
Both are at middle of femur
Where is the beam center and measurement for a craudocranial view of the stifle joint?
Center - over stifle joint

measurement - distal end of femur
Where is beam center and measurement for both lateral and caudocranial views of tibia and fibula?
Center - middle of tib and fib

measurement - over stifle joint
Where is beam center and measurement views of tarsus?
Center - middle of tarsus

Measurement - thickest area of tarsal joint
metatarsus-phalanges views - beam and measurement
Beam - midmetatarsal region

Measurement - distal tarsal joint
When positioning for lateral view of pelvis - which femur should be slightly more cranial?
limb closest to the cassette
Which pelvic view should be used if pelvic trauma is suspected?
dorsal w/ limbs in frog-leg position
Which view of stifle is most likely to be magnified?
craniocaudal
What are the 5 positioning requirements for a VD pelvis?
femurs parallel to eachother, patellae centered between femoral condyles, pelvis is w/o rotation (sides are mirror images), tail secured w/ tape (if needed) between femurs, view includes pelvis, femurs & stifle joint
Extended VD view of pelvis - beam & measurement
Beam - caudal portion of ischium

Measure - center of femur
Any body part in excess of ____ requires the use of a grid.
10 cm
Describe QC test - SID Marks
Measure from focal spot on tube to top of table, measure from top of table to top of cassette in bucky tray - add two measurements together - should equal SID indicated on tube stand
Describe QC test - Perpendicularity
Use level to make sure that xray tube is level and perpendicular to the tabletop
Describe QC test - tube/table/crane locks
activate and deactivate locks to make sure that they lock securely and unlock properly
Describe QC test - X-ray Field of Light
Clean cover over collimator, make sure that in normal room light the edges of the field are easily seen
Describe QC test - light field size
Measure light field to make sure it is w/i 2% of collimator indicators
Describe QC test - Angulation Indicator
use protractor placed on table top to make sure that decree of angle of x-ray tube is accurate
Describe QC test - Light Field/X-ray Field alignment
Place 9 coins on light field - one in center and 8 at edges (one in field, one out), develop film - should show all of (and only) coins in field. This makes sure collimator is adjusted properly
Describe QV test - Fog Test
expose film, take into darkroom and remove film from cassette, cover half of film w/ cassette and allow to sit for 2 minutes, develop film - difference in sides indicates something is causing a radiographic fog
What is the difference between a positive contract media and a negative?
positive will appear as black on a radiograph, negative will appear as white
Barium and Iodine are what kind of contract media?
positive
Gases are what kind of contrast media?
negative
What view is contraindicated during esophagography and why?
VD, patient could aspirate the media
What contrast media is insoluable in the GI tract and not absorbed by the abdomen or thorax if leakage occurs?
Barium
What medium is contraindicated if a GI perforation is suspected? What should be used in its place in this case?
Barium - iodine should be used
What supplies would you need for a barium series?
barium, saline, catheter tipped 60 ml syringe, orogastric tube, lube, gauze, towels, cassettes
Why is a small amount of saline infused before the barium?
To make sure that tube is correctly placed - animal will cough if tube not placed correctly (saline going into lungs)
If a film is too dark what adjustment could be made?
decrease KVP by 10-15%

decrease MAS by 30-50%
If a film is too light what adjustments could be made?
increase KVP by 10-15%

increase MAS by 30 - 50%
If film is all the same shade of white or grey, what adjustment should be made?
increase KVP to increase penetration
What view is preferred for lateral abdomen and why?
Right lateral - gives better view of kidneys (rt kidney more cranial because of heart)
What is proper temp of chemicals for manual processing?
68°
Why do chemicals need to be stirred before manual processing?
The chemical are suspensions and components tend to settle on bottom of tanks
5 steps of manual film processing
developer, rinse/stop bath, fix, wash, dry
Why is the film removed quickly from the developer and placed into the rinse bath (and from the fix to the wash)?
To keep spent developer/fix from the film from dripping back into the tank
How long is film in the rinse tank in manual film processing?
30 seconds
Why if film agitated in tanks in manual processing?
To remove air bubbles from the film
How long is film in fix?
2x developing time
How long should a film wash?
20-30 minutes
Why are film corners sometimes clipped w/ manual processing?
Some of the hangers may puncture film and you do not want those punctures scratching adjacent films when filed