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156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When you are in between drowsiness and sleep you are in what stage of sleep?

a. Stage 1

b. Stage 2

c. Stage 3 & 4

d. Stage 5
Stage 1 - Transition
A stage of sleep when you can be easily awakened is?

a. Stage 1

b. Stage 2

c. Stage 3 & 4

d. Stage 5
Stage2 - Light sleep
Deep sleep occurrs in what stage of sleep?

a. Stage 1

b. Stage 2

c. Stage 3 & 4

d. Stage 5
Stage 3 & 4 - Deep Sleep
A stage in sleep when Vital signs fluctuate , O2 consumption increases & thermoregulations are lost is ?
REM sleep
90 minute cycles during which people pass through the sleep stages is called?

a. REM

b. Transition

c. Stage 3 & 4

d. Sleep Rhythm
Sleep Rhythm
Characteristics of normal sleep & rest are?

a. Fatigue

b. Synmthesis of cells

c. anabolism

d. conserving energy
All of the Above !!!
Short sleepers are characterized by all EXCEPT the following:

a. 6 hours sleep or less

b. Efficient & Hardworking

c. Changing positions 2- 40 times a night

d. Creative
Creative
Long sleepers are characterized by all of the folowing EXCEPT:

a. 9 hours or more of sleep

b. Creative

c. Changes sleep positions 20 - 40 times a night

d. Efficient & Hardworking
Efficient & Hardworking
Infants can sleep as long as?

a. 22 hours a day

b. 12

c. 14 hours a day
All of the above !!!
Which of the following are known to have seven sleep periods between the day and night?

a. newborns

b. infants
newborns
3 waking states of newborns/infants are?

a. Circadian Rhythms

b. Sleep Rhythms

c. Sleep latency

d. Quiet awake, active awake, and crying awake
Quiet awake

Active awake

Crying
Newborns/infants experience what 2 types of sleep?

a. quiet & active sleep

b. active & crying sleep

c. quiet & cying sleep

d.
quiet & active sleep
An adaptive task for the infant is to?

a. awaken well rested, refreshed, and energized

b. Total sleep times should continue to drop as the infant gets older

c. Establish sleep-wake patterns compatible with the environment

d. nap only once or twice per day
Establish sleep-wake patterns compatible with the environment
Toddler/Preschoolers should sleep having?

a. Naps once or twice per day

b. Total sleep time drop to 10-12 hours by age 2

c. Total sleep time decrease to 12 hours by age 5
ALL of the above !!!
A childs sleep needs are ?

a. 8-12 hours a day

b. Sleep needs are in relationship to growth

c. Sleep needs are in relationship to sports and activity patterns
ALL of the above !!!
Adolescents require more sleep than

a. before puberty at 8-10yrs

b. after puberty at 8-10yrs
before puberty at 8-10yrs
Sleep satisfaction decreases at what age group?

a. Toddlers/ Preschoolers

b. Adoloescence

c. Young adults

d. Middle adults
Middle adults
In what age group does Stage 4 sleep decrease?

a. Infancy

b. Adolescence

c. Young adults

d. Older adults
Older adults
In what age group does deep sleep decrease?

a. Infancy

b. Adolescence

c. Young adults

d. Older adults
Older adults
Frequent napping, longer sleep latency, increased number & length of awakenings, and general fatigue occurs at what age group?

a. Toddlers/ preschoolers

b. Adolescence

c. Young adults

d. Older adults
Older adults
A Confusional state that tends to appear at dusk is?

a. Sleep latency

b. Parasomnia

c. Terminal Insomnia

d. Sundowner's syndrome
Sundowners syndrome
Older adults experience?

a. 6 hours sleep per night

b. Difficulty remaining asleep

c. Total time in bed increases

d. Shorter nocturnal period with increase in daytime naps
ALL of the above !!!
Need, Environment, Lifestyle and habits,Illness, Medications, Chemicals & Mood states, are all factors that affect?
Sleep & Rest
Warmth increases in what stage of sleep?

a. slow-wave sleep

b. transitional sleep

c. REM sleep

d. Stage 2 light sleep
slow-wave/deep sleep
Physically fit individuals experience?

a. have decreased sleep latency

b. have increased sleep latency
have decreased sleep latency
Hunger or difficulty sleeping after a large meal, ingestion of certain foods decrease sleep latency and increase stage 4 sleep are most likely the results of?

a. Exercise & Thermoregulation

b. Nutrition

c. Metabolism

d. both nutrition & metabolism
Nutrition and Metabolism
Acute or chronic illness affects what stage of sleep?

a. Stage 1 - transitional

b. Stage 2 - Light sleep

c. Stage 3 - slow wave/deep

d. Stage 5 - REM
Stage 3 - slow wave/deep
Three types of insomia are?
Initial insomnia

Maintenance insomnia

Terminal insomnia
A type of insomnia where an individual has difficlty falling asleep?

a. Terminal insomnia

b. Maintenance insomnia

c. Initial insomnia
Initial insomnia
A type of insomnia where an individual has difficlty staying asleep?

a. Terminal insomnia

b. Maintenance insomnia

c. Initial insomnia
Maintenance insomnia
Early awakening insomnia is called?

a. Initial insomnia

b. Maintenance insomnia

c. Terminal insomnia
Terminal insomnia
Perceived difficulty in sleeping is called ?
Insomnia
Insomnia is?

a. Perceived difficulty in sleeping

b. Disorder of excessive daytime sleepiness characterized by short, sleep attacks

c. Circadian rhythm disruptions

d. Parasomnia
Perceived difficulty in sleeping
Disorder of excessive daytime sleepiness characterized by short, sleep attacks is?

a. Circadian rhythm disruptions

b. Jet lag

c. Parasomnias

d. Narcolepsy
Narcolepsy
Narcolepsy, a disorder of excessive daytime sleepiness characterized by short, sleep attacks typically occurs?

a. in adolescence

b. ages 15 - 30

c. ages 45 - 60

d. the elderly
ages 15 - 30
Sleep attacks, called narcolepsy can last as long as?

a. 2-10 minutes

b. 10-15 minutes

c. 1- 30 minutes

d. 15-20 seconds
Last 10 –15 minutes
Recurrent periods of absence of breathing for 10 seconds to 2 minutes, occurring at least 5 times per hour during sleep is called?

a. Maintenance insomnia

b. Sleep Apnea

c. Narcolepsy

d. Circadian Rythm disruption
Sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea, recurrent periods of absence of breathing for 10 seconds to 2 minutes, occurrs?

a. at least 5 times per hour

b. at least 2 times per hour

c. at least 10 times per hour

a. at least 20 times per hour
at least 5 times per hour
Name 3 types of apnea?
Obstructive sleep apnea

Central apnea

Mixed apnea
Sleep apnea, recurrent periods of absence of breathing for 10 seconds to 2 minutes, occurring at least 5 times per hour may occur as much as?

a. 5-10 per night

b. 10-20 per night

c. 20-50 per night

d. 50-600 per night
50-600 per night
Crawling, itching sensations in the legs at rest are called?

a. Parasomnias

b. Mixed apnea

c. Restless legs syndrome

d. Irritability
Restless legs syndrome
Repetitive dorsiflexion of the foot and flexion of the knee is?

a. Parasomnias

b. Mixed apnea

c. Restless legs syndrome

d. Irritability
Restless legs syndrome
Sleepwalking, talking, bed wetting are called?

a. Disrupted circadian rhythms

b. nocturnal circadian rhythms

c. Sundowner's syndrome

d. parasomnias
parasomnias
Normal activities in the day that is abnormal during sleep are called?

a. jet lag

b. insomnia

c. sundowner's syndrome

d. parasomnias
parasomnias
Jet lag is the result of?

a. lack of sleep

b. initial insomnia

c. circadian rhythm disruptions

d. environmental changes
circadian rhythm disruptions
Periodic limb movement that occurs every 15-20 seconds during sleep is usually the result of?

a. Jet lag

b. Crawling, itching sensations in the legs at rest

c.Repetitive dorsiflexion of the foot and flexion of the knee

d. Restless legs syndrome

e. Circadian rhythm disruptions
All of the above !!!
Circles under eyes, yawning, nodding, slow responses, irritability, impaired concentration, word-finding difficulties, VS, are all which forms of data collected in an assessment of a patient with difficulties sleeping?

a. objective data

b. subjective data
objective data
Interventions to assist patients in getting better sleep would be?
Environment modifications

Privacy and security

Sleep rituals

Managing individual sleep needs

Medication
Expected outcomes for a diagnosis of "Sleep pattern Disturbance R/T ..." could be?
Patient will report fewer problems falling asleep.

Patient will have an increase sleep time to 6 hours per night.

Patient will report feeling more rested.
Illness & stress are examples of?

a. internal sensory alterations

b. external sensory alterations
Internal sensory alterations
Light, noise, social stimulation, strange environment are examples of?

a. internal sensory alterations

b. external sensory alterations
External sensory alterations
Insomnia, Narcolepsy, Sleep Apnea, and Periodic limb movement are all considered to be?
Alterations in sleep
Alterations in sleep include?

a. Insomnia

b. Narcolepsy

c. Sleep Apnea

d. Periodic limb movement
All of the above !!!
An altered state of consciousness in which the individuals perception of and reaction to the environment are decreased, describes?

a. Sundowner's syndrome

b. Impaired Circadian Rhythm

c. Alzheimers Disease

d. Sleep
Sleep
A cluster or pattern of waking behavior that appears during sleep, such as somnambulism(sleepwalking), sleeptalking, and enurises (bedwetting) defines?

a. A. Sundowners's Syndrome

b. Impaired Circadian Rhythms

c. Internal/External sensory alterations

d. Parasomnias
Parasomnias
By the age of 12, an expected period of sleep for a child children is?

a. 6 hours a day

b. 8 hours a day

c. 10 hours a day

d. 12 hours a day
12 hours a day
How many awakenings per night is normal for young people?

a. 0 times per night

b. 0-1 times per night

c. 1-2 times per night

d. 2-4 times per night
1-2 times per night
This stage of sleep is characterized by the fluctuation of vital signs, increase in 02 consumption, & thermoregulation is lost?

a. Stage 1-Transition

b. Stage 2-Light Sleep

c. Stage 3 & 4- Slow wave/Deep sleep

d. Stage 5 - REM sleep
Stage 5 - REM sleep
90 minute sleep cycles which people pass through the sleep stages is called?

a. Circadian Rhythms

b. Insomnias

c. Sleep rhythm

d. Sleep Apnea
Sleep rhythm
How many hours of sleep does a 5 year old child need?

a. 6 hours

b. 8 hours

c. 10 hours

d. 12 hours
12 hours
How long do narcleptic attacks last?

a. 2-5 minutes

b. 2-10 minutes

c. 5-10 minutes

d. 10-15 minutes
10-15 minutes
How often does REM sleep occur & how long does it last?

a. every 90 minutes for 15-30 minutes

b. every 90 minutes for 5-15 minutes

c. every 30 minutes for 5-15 minutes

d. every 90 minutes for 5-30 minutes
every 90 minutes for 5-30 minutes
How many changes of position in a night would be considered normal?

a. 1-2 times

b. 10-20 times

c. 20-40 times

d. 40-90 times
20-40 times
A syndrome caused by a decreases in amount, quaulity, and consistancy in sleep; produces a variety of physiologic & behavioural symptoms, the severity of which depend on the degree of deprivation?

a. Insomnia

b. Jet lag

c. Sleep deprivation

d. Sundowner's Syndrome
Sleep deprivation
The inability to obtain a sufficient quality or quantity of sleep is?

a. Jet lag

b. Impaired Circadian Rhythms

c. Sleep Apnea

d. Insomnia
Insomnia
Periodic cessation of breathing during sleep is called?

a. impaired circadian rhythm

b. sleep apnea

c. obstructive insomnia

d. internal sensory obstuctions
sleep apnea
Rest is defined as?

a. calmess

b. relaxation without emotional stress

c. freedom from anxiety

d. Not having to study for this test
ALL of the above !!!
Most infants sleep through the night by?

a. 2 months

b. 4 months

c. 6 months

d. 1 year
4 months
How many hours of sleep does a two year old need?

a. 4-6 hours

b. 6-8 hours

c. 8-10 hours

d. 10-12 hours
10-12 hours
What type of sleep pattern is characteristic of one who is creative?

A. a short sleeper who sleeps 6 hours

B. a long sleeper who sleeps 9 hours or more
a long sleeper who sleeps 9 hours or more
A condition in which the person responds to changes within a balanced state?

a. Inhibition of action

b. Intrapsychic processes

c. Coping

d. stress
stress
An event or stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress is called?

a. stressors

b. Symptomatic

c. Behavioral

d. Secondary appraisal
stressors
When a person faces stressors, responses are called?

a. coping strategies

b. coping responses

c. coping mechanisms

d. All of the above
coping strategies

coping responses

coping mechanisms
Sources of Stress are?

a. Internal

b. External

c. Developmental

d. Situational
All of the above !!!
The diagnoses of cancer would be considered what type of stress?

a. Situational

b. Developmental

c. External

d. Internal
Internal
Nursing school tests would be considered what type of source of stress?

a. Situational

b. Developmental

c. External

d. Internal
External
Stressors that are predictable throughout one’s life would be considered?

a. Situational

b. Developmental

c. External

d. Internal
Developmental
Unpredictable events such as a divorce would be considered as what source of stress?

a. Situational

b. Developmental

c. External

d. Internal
Situational
Stress is a stimulus, life event, or a set of circumstances that arouse?

a. physiologic reaction

b. psychologic reaction

c. All of the above
All of the above
Using a scale for aseessing stressful events ...?

a. A numerical value is used to measure a “stressful” event

b. A numerical value is used to indicate the amount of stress an individual is experiencing

c. Is considered not reliable

d. all of the above
All of the above
Response Based Models of Stress include which of the following?

a. LAS - Local adaptation syndrome

b. GAS - General adaptation syndrome
Both LAS & GAS

Local Adaptation Syndrome &

General Adaptation Syndrome
Stress that occurs in one organ or part of the body is referred to as?

a. Local Adaptation Syndrome

b. General Adaptation Syndrome
LAS

Local Adaptation Syndrome
A global physical response to stress is?

A. Stress occuring in one organ or part of the body

B. Local Adaptation to stress such as inflammation

b. The General Adaptation Syndrome
GAS

The General Adaptation Syndrome
When all energy for adaptation has been exhausted an individual is in what stage of GAS?

a. Alarm reaction

b. Stage of resistance

c. Stage of exhaustion
Stage of exhaustion
What phase in GAS does one experience the "Fight& Flight" reaction?

a. Alarm reaction

b. Stage of resistance

c. Stage of exhaustion
Alarm reaction
Anxiety over test, that may prevent the student from studying effectively falls into the catagory of what kind of stressor?

a. Negative stressors

b. Positive Stressors
Negative stressors
A limited attention span is a common ______ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
cognitive
Anger is a common ________ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
emotional
One who is being unusually talkative is usually exhibiting a common _______ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
behavioral
Fatigue, Muscle tremors, Sweating, Nausea, are all common ______ signs of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
physical
Blaming others is a common ________ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
cognitive
Irritability is a common ______ sign of what type of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
emotional
A change in eating habits is a common _______ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
behavioral
Poor concentration is a common _____ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
Cognitive
Denial is acommon _________ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
emotional
Distressing dreams are a common _____ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
cognitive
Change in activity level
is a common _______ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
behavioral
Hypervigilance is a common _______ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
behavioral
Hopelessness is a common ________ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
emotional
Withdrawal is a common _____ sign of stress?

a. cognitive

b. emotional

c. behavioral

d. physical
behavioral
Verbal & motor manifestations of stress are?

a. Crying

b. Verbal abuse

c. Screaming hitting, kicking

d. Holding, touching

e. laughing
All of the above !!!
Effects of Long-Term Stress on the brain include?

a. Stress hormone (cortisol) becomes toxic

b. Short-term memory loss

c. Decreased concentration & rational thought

d. accident prone

e. Increased fatigue & anger

f. Sleep disturbances

g. all of the above
all of the above
Effects of Long-Term Stress on the mouth and throat include all of the following EXCEPT?

a. Dryness

b. difficulty talking

c. Spasms of throat

d. difficulty swallowing

e. fighting infection
all of the above are effects of Long Term Stress on the mouth & throat
Effects of Long-Term Stress on the skin include?

a. Cool, clammy, sweaty skin

b. Hives, itching

c. Tightening of scalp

d. Psoriasis

e. Acne

f. Eczema
all of the above
Effects of Long-Term Stress on Musculoskeletal include?

a. Headaches

b. Chronic pain

c. Muscle tension

d. Migraines

e. Back pain
all of the above
Effects of Long-Term Stress on the digestive system include?

a. Stomach burning

b. Irritable bowel syndrome

c. Diarrhea

d. Constipation

e. Bloating
all of the above
Effects of Long-Term Stress on the immune function of the body include?

a. Increased colds, etc.

b. Increased infections

c. Possibly cancer
all of the above
Multiple sclerosis is a stress related illness.

True or False?
TRUE
Arthritis is a stress related illness.

True or False?
TRUE
The constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person is?
coping
An individual’s attempt to deal with demands or obstacles that create the demands is?

a. Problem focused coping

b. emotion focused coping
Problem focused coping
When an individual’s effort is concentrated on methods or regulating the emotional response to the problem?

a. Problem focused coping

b. emotion focused coping
Emotion focused coping
As an individual begins to deal with a stressor, modes of coping may include?

a. Information seeking

b. Direct actions

c. Inhibition of action

d. Intrapsychic processes

e. Turning to others

f. Escaping or avoiding
all of the above
The nurse should assess the patient for signs and symptoms of the stress response that occur as a result of changes in?

a. Nervous system

b. Endocrine system

c. Immune system
all of the above
The three major areas are important in assessment of stress are?


a. Demands

b. stressors

c. Human responses to stress

d. Coping
all of the above
Physiologic effects of the human responses to stress are?

a. ↑ heart rate

b. ↑ blood pressure

c. Loss of appetite

d. Hyperventilation

e. Sweating

f. Dilated pupils
All of the above
An example of a physiologic effect of the human response to stress would be?

a. Dilated pupils

b. Gastrointestinal upset

c. Impaired speech
Dilated pupils
An example of a symptomatic effect of the human response to stress would be?

a. Dilated pupils

b. Gastrointestinal upset

c. Impaired speech
Gastrointestinal upset
An example of a behavioral effect of the human response to stress would be?

a. Dilated pupils

b. Gastrointestinal upset

c. Impaired speech
Impaired speech
An example of a physiologic effect of the human response to stress would be?

a. ↑ heart rate

b. Chronic fatigue

c. Inability to concentrate

c. Impaired speech
↑ heart rate
An example of a symptomatic effect of the human response to stress would be?

a. ↑ blood pressure

b. Headache

c. Accident-proneness
Headache
An example of a behavioral effect of the human response to stress would be?

a. Loss of appetite

b. Musculoskeletal pain

c. Anxiety
Anxiety
An example of a physiologic effect of the human response to stress would be?

a. Inability to concentrate

b. Insomnia

c. Sweating
Sweating
An example of a symptomatic effect of the human response to stress would be?

a. Impaired speech

b. Skin disorders

c. Hyperventilation

d. Sweating
Skin disorders
The inability to form a valid appraisal of the stressors, inadequate choices of practiced responses, and/or inability to use available resources is?
Ineffective Coping
When the usually supportive primary person (family member or close friend) provides insufficient, ineffective, or compromised support, comfort, assistance, or encouragement it is called?
Compromised Family Coping
The importance of cognitive appraisal in the stress experience should prompt the nurse to assess if changes in the way a person perceives and labels particular events or situations are possible.

True or False?
True
What is Circadian synchronization?



The person is awake when the physiologic & psychologic rhythms are most active
&
is asleep when the physiologic & psychologic rhythms are most inactive
What is Circadian synchronization?
What is Enuresis?



bedwetting

involuntary passing of urine in children AFTER bladder control is achieved
What is Enuresis?
What is Fatigue?



A state of exhaustion or a loss of strength or endurance
What is Fatigue?
What are hypnotics?



sedatives
What are hypnotics?
What is hypopnea?


Abnormally shallow & slow respirations
What is hypopnea?
What are nocturnal emmisions?


orgasm & emission of semen during sleep.
What are nocturnal emmisions?
What is REM sleep?


sleep during which a person experiences rapid eye movements
What is REM sleep?
What is Rest?


calmness, relaxation without emotional stress, and freedom from anxiety
What is Rest?
What is Sleep?


an altered state of consiousness in which the individual's perception of and reaction to the environment are decreased.
What is Sleep?
Sleep rhythms
How long does it take for a person to cycle through the sleep stages?


90 minutes
Sleep rhythms
How long does it take for a person to cycle through the sleep stages?
What is the Sleep Latency Period?


The time it takes you to go to sleep.
What is the Sleep Latency Period?
About how many naps/day does a 1 year old take?


1 or 2
About how many naps/day does a 1 year old take?
What are some diagnostic tests that can be used to observe sleep behaviors?


Sleep studies & O2 levels
What are some diagnostic tests that can be used to observe sleep behaviors?
True or false

Is scoliosis a genetic disorder?


YES !
Is scoliosis a genetic disorder?
What are some common signs of stress?

Memory problems
Distressing dreams
Poor concentration
Limited attention span
Repeatedly reliving an event
Blaming others
What are some common signs of stress?
What are some emotional signs of stress?


Anxiety
Depression
Anger
Guilt
Fear
What are some emotional signs of stress?
What are some behavioral signs of stress?


Being very quiet
Withdrawal
Increased drinking
Being unusually talkative
Change in eating habits
What are some behavioral signs of stress?
What are some physical signs of stress?


Fatigue
Muscle tremors
Sweating
Nausea
Upset stomach
Difficulty breathing
Dizziness
Chills
What are some physical signs of stress?
What are some long term effects of stress on the mouth & throat?


Dryness->difficulty talking
Spasms of throat->difficulty swallowing and fighting infection
What are some long term effects of stress on the mouth & throat?
What are some long term effects of stress on the brain?


Stress hormone (cortisol) becomes toxic
Short-term memory loss
Decreased concentration and rational thought (accident prone)
Increased fatigue and anger
Sleep disturbances
What are some long term effects of stress on the brain?
What are some long term effects of stress on the muscoloskeletal?

Headaches
Chronic pain may include:
–Muscle tension
–Migraines
Back pain, possible
What are some long term effects of stress on the muscoloskeletal?
What are some long term effects of stress on the digestive system?

Stomach burning
Irritable bowel syndrome
Diarrhea
Constipation
Bloating
What are some long term effects of stress on the digestive system?
What are some long term effects of stress on immune function?


Increased colds, etc.
Increased infections
Possibly cancer
What are some long term effects of stress on immune function?
What are some stress realted illnesses?


Cardiovascular diseases
Cancer
Arthritis
Multiple sclerosis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Fibromyalgia
Colds
Asthma
What are some stress realted illnesses?
How does a person go about identifying Work related stressors or demands?

INTRINSIC demands:
Poor working conditions, work overload, and time pressures


Individual’s role
Organization (role conflict)

career development, relationships at work
organizational climate
How does a person go about identifying Work related stressors or demands?
Infants experience how many sleep periods during the day and night?

7 sleep periods
Infants experience how many sleep periods during the day and night?
As an individual begins to deal with a stressor, modes of coping may include ...

Information seeking
Direct actions
Inhibition of action
Intrapsychic processes
Turning to others
Escaping or avoiding
As an individual begins to deal with a stressor, modes of coping may include ...
What are 2 specific nursing diagnoses related to stress?


Ineffective coping

Compromised family coping
What are 2 specific nursing diagnoses related to stress?
Sleep latency and increase stage 4 sleep are affected by?

a. Nutrition

b. Metabolism

c. Hunger

d. large meals

e. ceratin foods ALL
Sleep latency and increase stage 4 sleep are affected by?