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118 Cards in this Set

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What are the ages of early childhood?

middle childhood?
3-6

7-11
What does Theories of Mind mean?
That people have their own mind & own thoughts
What is Piaget's cognitive stage during early childhood?
preoperational
What is the major thing going on in Piaget's preoperational stage?
Symbolic Function - the ability to use symbols that have meaning...like numbers, words, images
What is still missing from children in the early childhood stage or period?
logic
Give an example of a type of drawing that a child would do during early childhood.
Symbolic drawing
What is transduction?
Meantally linking phenomena whether logical or not. Example: my parents got a divorce because I was bad.

JUST BECAUSE THEY HAPPEN AT THE SAME TIME, THEY ARE LINKED
What are two immature aspects of preoperational thought?
Centration

Decenter
What does centration mean?
tendancy to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
what does decenter mean?
to think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation. Inability to decenter leads to illogical conclusions.
What is the main way centration shows up?
Egocentrism: self centered. the moon is following me.
What are two experiements (both by Piaget) that show centration during this developmental stage?
Three Mountain task
Conservation of Volume
What is the HALLMARK of preoperation?
The inability to conserve
What does the inability to conserve really mean?
belief that two objects will remain equal, even when they are manipulated: beaker experiment
What is conservation?
The ability to hold onto one piece of information consistantely through time despite superficial changes
Why is conservation so difficult? two reasons
Horizontal Declage

Irreversability
What is horizontal declage? What does it relate back to?
inability to transfer learning about one type of conservation to other types. Volume, mass, length, not carried over into new situation.

All part of preoperational. Inability to conserve. Immature aspects of preoperational thought.
What is irreversability?
Failure to see that an action can go two or more ways...driving in the opposite direction, putting the skinny glass stuff back into the regular glasses.
False beliefs and deception is another form of egocentrism. What is an example?
Modify this card when you read the book
What do you have to be able to do in order to distinguish appearance vs. reality? Candle wrapped in paper...what is it?
Decenter. you have to be able to decenter to do this. Thinking simulatinously of multiple ideas at the same time, multiple perspectives
what types of things might help a preoperational child through their theory of mind development?
-child's social skills, help them realize that Joe might be lonely
-language development
-talking to children about mental states
-pretend play encouraged
-cultural attitudes
-bilingual children do best, why?
What is fast mapping related to? What is it?
language development. child learns the meaning of a word after hearing it only once or twice.
Language Development

By age 3 children start using ____________, possessives and __________ tense. They know the difference between ___, U, and _____.
plurals
past
i
me
By age 4/5 children use what type of sentences?
declarative mostly still.
what are pragmatics?
practical parts of language

how we use language to communicate

not vocab and syntex
what is social speech?

Give two examples of what you might encourage a preoperational child to do to expand on this....
speech intended to be understood by a listener. Not just talking to talk

explain clearly
politeness
Delayed language development may be problem with ________ ____________. Many children will catch up especially if ___________ is normal.
fast mapping

comprehension
What are two major things that are important as pre reading skills?
General Linguistic Skills

Specific Skills like phonemic awareness (rhyming, knowing that words are sounds)
Group recessitation and group activities would be part of this type of preschool.
society centered philosphy
Head start is considered what type of preschool....(it is academically directed).
compensatory
When does the developing self happen?
During preschool, the early stages....early childhood 3 to 6
How do children develop initative?
Erickson Stage 3
What is self concept?
Our total image of ourselfes. I am statements are best to get at self concept.
During self concept, what would a younger child have in their list?
very concrete list
physical stuff
unrealistic stuff
really positive
For a growing child, what would be in their list of self concept?
logic, lot of conclusions....i am this because of this
The oldest child ding self concept would have a list that had what?
multi dimensional stuff, logic and abstract
When does a dramatic shift in self concept happen?
5 to 7
What are the three types of things that happen during the 5 to 7 shift?
.Single Representations
concrete descriptions

.Representational Mappings
logic, connections

.Representational Systems
multidimensional, balanced positive and negative, articulation of self worth
What are the two types of self concept?
interdependence (collectivism)

independence (individualism)
When is self esteem first articulated?
age 8
What is the helpless pattern?
When self esteem is contingent on success

failure may make the child feel helples to do better

improved self esteem depends on whether child believes their traits are fixed or changeable
What is Erickson's psychosocial stage here?
initiative vs. guilt
What is the virtue granted here?
purpose
How you learn to think, nurture, act, feel, behave as a boy or girl is considered.....
gender
How you feel inside your body.
Gender Identity
What type of person you are attracted to.
Sexual Orientation
When does gender identity develop?
preschool years
Gender Roles
Cultural expectations placed on someone due to their sex.
What is gender typing?
the process by which children acquire gender roles
What approach....

Looks at the biological bases of gender?
biological approach
What approach....

Looks at the gender role development from a Freudian viewpoint?
Psychoanalytic approach
What approach....

emphasizes the influence of socialization?
Socialization based approach
What approach....

focuses on throught processes and active construction of gender concepts
cognitive approach
With Freud's psychoanalytic approach to gender differences, Freud suggested a process of ________________.

Gender typing
Identification.

children adopt characteristics and attitudes of the same sex parent
this begins with boy gives up desire to possess his mother, a girl her father
This approach to gender differences looks at genetics, hormones, and nerological evidence that males have more gray matter and females have a larger corpus callosum
Biological approach
Thinking and actively constructing your gender is a description of this approach to gender difference.
Cognitive approach.

kids actively search for clues to their gender and appropriate behavior for genders.

They then purposely adopt behavioirs they perceive as consistent with their gender
What two scientists studied the cognitive aproach to gender?
Kohlberg
Bem
What did Kohlberg's gender constancy do?
Realize that their sex will always be the same
What did Bem's Gender Schema theory state?
children take on gender toles that are consistent with their sex and culture. They promote gender sterotypes
Who is tied to the socialization approach to gender?
Bandura
Bandura stated that children get their gender info from this....
parents and teachers

family influences, peers, cultural, media
What are three types of play?
functional

constructive

pretend
Play by yourself
solitary play
onlooker behavior
watch someone play
play lala land
unoccupied behavior
play together but not organization around a goal
associative play
doing something together, playing a game together with a common goal
cooperative play
What type of discipline works best?
reinforcements
What are the four parenting types?
authoritative
authoritarian
permissive/indulgent
neglectful
What is the best one?
authoratative...high response, very demaninding and controlling
neglectful is _____ with responsiveness and _____ with control.
low low
what type of aggression is mostly seen with girls?
relational aggresion
what type of aggression is seen with early children, and it achieves a goal?
instrumental aggression
What is covert, indirect or psycholgical aggression with manipulation and threats also called?
relational aggression
What is direct physical threats or overt threats with physical force called?
overt aggression....hurting you is my goal. boys
This aggression serves a purpose.
Instrumental aggression
What is the stage for cognitive development for middle childhood?
concrete operational stage
What do children develop during the concrete operational stage? Piaget.
logic.
What is their logic tied to?
concrete. they are not able to do abstract in middle childhood cognitive development
Concrete operational children can master this idea, which is why they don't ask are we there yet.
spatial relationships...distance thing.
With categorization, what can a concrete operational child do?
they can put something in more than one category. she is my mom but she is also your sister.
What is seriation?
arranging objects in a series based on dimension. lightest to darkest....in a pickle
What does seriation have to do with?
categorization. cognitive development in middle childhood
What is clss inclusion?
ability to see relationship between a whole and its parts. Roses, vs. flowers is example. multiple relationships
What are middle children still hindered by?
horizontal declage
What happens with moral reasoning in middle childhood?
they can reason through it. the boy that was helping and spilled is not as in trouble as the boy that wasn't helping. doesn't matter how much juice they each spilled
The notion of equity is part of moral reasoning. When does it happen?
around 11 or 12. where fair is b/c of special circumstances. one gets more snack than the other
Who are the two big players in IQ?
Binet
Wechsler
Why might an IQ test not be a good idea? 3 reasons
*doesn't measure inborn ability, only tests current knowledge

*cultural bias

*summer drop off

*can underestimate children who do not test well.
Why might an IQ test be a good thing?
Extensive info about validity and reliability (meaning repeatable and valid means it is measuring what you claim to measure)

Scores are pretty predicative for school achievement
Who is the guy that came up with three types of intelligence?
Sternberg.

Sternberg Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Who is the guy that came up with multiple intelligences?
Gardner
What are the three aspects of intelligence according to sternberg?
componential (typical math smart)

experimental (insightful or creative)

contextual (street smart, practical)
Street smart
contextual
School smart
componential
Creative smart
Experimental
What are two tests for delayed people? with IQ?
kaufman assessment battery for children k abc II

dynamic tests
What does k abc II evaluate?
special needs, cognitive development. for language developed, so won't use a lot of language
Where are the biggest leaps in language during the middle childhood years?
pragmatics.

not so much in vocab and syntax and grammer
Pragmatics is use of conversational skill and use of ____________ skills.
Narative
Another term for site words
Visually based retrieval
Another word for sounding it out
Decoding
Mental retardation is considered an IQ of _______ plus what?
70 or below

adaptive behavior defects
What is self efficacy beliefs?
The belief that your actions can bring on a result
For smart kids you can broaden knowledge through breadth
enrichment
What is erickson's psychosocial stage of middle childhood?
Industry vs. inferiority
Industry vs inferiority is a major contributor to ________________.
self esteem
What is the virtue they get from industry vs inferiority?
competence
Emotional self regulation involves _____________________ control over ______________, attention and ___________.
voluntary

emotions
behavior
What are two parenting issues in middle childhood?
Coregulation (parent and child balance the regulation)

Discipline
What is the major factor that a working mom must have in order for the situation to be a success?
parental monitoring of child
What types of things will a child of a working mom benefit from?
better grades
more father involvement
fewer gender sterotypes
positive family and peer relations
higher self esteem
List the types of friendship (stages):

egocentric
__________

reciprocal

__________

mutual

__________
egocentric
unilateral
reciprocal
mutual
interdependent
Two ways to measure popularity
sociometric popularity
who do you like most and who do you like least? usually high achievers who are smart not aggressive or disruptive

Perceived Popularity
who kids think other kids like most. arrogant dominant aggressive physically attractive or athletic
Reasons kids may be unpopular
aggressive

hyperactive

inattentive or withdrawn

insensitive to other's feelings

doesn't adapt well to new situations
What are two types of aggression?
Instrumental/Proactive

Hostile
goal is hurtin the victim
hostile
goal is getting something
instrumental/proactive