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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why are chemistry panels done(4)?
general screen, confirm/rule out specific dz, monitor clinical conditions, ER medicine therapy
What is a chemistry profile?
a group of chemical tests appropriate fora given species and a given organ
On what type of sample are chem panels usually done?
plasma or serum, usually serum
What kind of tubes are used to collect a serum sample?
red or red marble (gel separator)
What is the color of a normal serum sample?
clear to straw colored
What color is an icteric serum sample?
strong gold/yellow/amber
What color is a hemolyzed serum sample?
What color is a lipemic sample?
3 mls of blood yields ___ of serum
1 ml
Always draw enough blood to run ___ tests
A delay in centrifugation can result in lower blood ____ & ___ levels
glucose and ammonia
What is ALT?
Alanine transferase
What is AST?
Aspartate transferase
What is SDH?
Sorbitol dehydrogenase
What is GD?
Glutamic dehydrogenase
What is ALP?
Alkaline phosphatase
What is BUN?
Blood Urea Nitrogen
What tests are useful in the dx of liver dz (specific according to packet)?
What tests indicate cholestasis (back-up of bile (liver)) when values are above normal?
ALP, GGT, Bilirubin
What is GGT?
Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
Generally according to lecture, what tests are used in a chem panel to evaluate liver?
ALT, AST, ALP, Bilirubin, bile acids
What tests are used to indicate liver function?
blood glucose, Albumin, BUN, bile acid test
What test requires two samples, one pre-prandial, one post-prandial?
bile acid test
What are some signs of liver dz?
wt loss, anorexia, v/d, pu/pd, jaundiced, ascites, dehydrated, hemorrhage/bleeding, hepatic
What are some signs of kidney dz?
pu/pd, dehydrated, vomitting, anorexia, ulcers, rubber-jaw, loss of bone calcium, anemia
What are the two main tests used to dx kidney dz? Three others?
*BUN & Creatinine*
uric acid, potassium (K+), phosphorus
An increased/decreased BUN may be indicative of kidney dz.
increased - waste products rise when kidneys are not eliminating
___% of the kidney is non-functional before the BUN rises
What is Azotemia?
urea in blood
Other than kidney z, what other conditions could show a rise in BUN?
dehydration (check SG), heart dz, low blood pressure, ureter/urethra obstruction, bladdertear, GI homorrhage
Which test is more specific in the dx of kidney dz - BUN or Creatinine? Why?
Creatinine - not as many factors that could affect
What is hyper/hypokalemia?
inc/dcr potassium
What tests are used to dx dzs of the pancreas?
Amylase, lipase
Amylase increases w/ ___ & ___ dzs but Lipase only increases w/ ___
Amylase - pancreas & kidney
Lipase - pancreas
What tests are used to dx diabetes? Inc or dcr of ea?
blood glucose (inc), insulin (dcr)
Inc insulin and dcr blood sugar could indicate what dz condition?
Insulinoma - a cancerous tumor that produces insulin
Dcr insulin and incr blood glucose could indicate what dz condition?
What is Na+
What is K+
What is Cl-
What is Ca++
What is P
Low sodium (Na+) could be caused by what?
v/d, kidney dz, diabetes, Cushing's
High sodium could be caused by what?
dehydration, salt poisoning
___ controls blood pressure and is controlled by Aldosterone
Na+ (sodium)
What electrolyte is excreted in urine and is controlled by Aldosterone and the body's pH?
Potassium (K+)
What could cause low potassium (K+)
PU, administered fluids, diarrhea, alkalosis
What could cause increased potassium?
inability to make/pass urine, acidosis, Addison's dz
What electrolyte is important for the normal functioning of the heart?
potassium (K+)
What electrolyte is controlled by PTH (parathyroid hormone), and calcitonin?
calcium (Ca++)
What collection tube should not be used when testing sodium levels?
sodium heparin - will elevate values
What collection tube should not be used when collecting samples for calcium testing?
EDTA - binds to the calcium
What could cause elevated calcium?
bone destruction, rodenticides, xcess Vit D, cancers, kidney dz
What could cause low calcium?
eclampsia, milk fever
What is eclampsia?
Calcium drain due to fetal development in late gestation and esp in milk production
What are some signs of eclampsia in ruminants? Small animal?
Ruminants - paralysis, dystocia
SA - tetany, seizures, inc temp
What is alkalosis?
high pH
What is acidosis?
low pH
The protein ___ is important for blood pressure, calcium levels, and metabolizing drugs.
What could cause high Albumin?
What could cause low albumin?
diarrhea, anorexia, burns, kidney dz, liver dz
___ is a protein associated with the immune system (helps fight off dz)
What could cause high globulin?
infection, inflammation, dehydration
Total protein = ___ + ___
albumin + globulin
What is ketosis?
presence of ketones
Ketones are/are not normally present.
are not
___ are made in the body's attempt to make a new energy source
What are the 4 main functions of electrolytes?
Maintain water balance thru osmotic pressure, maintain constant pH, activation of blood coagulation & enzyme systems, maintain normal muscular & nervous functions.
What is a normal blood pH?
What blood value is considered alkaline/basic?
above 7.0
What blood value is acidic?
below 7.0
What organ controls electrolyte concentrations?