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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is anabolism? Catabolism?
Anabolism is the building reactions that require energy. Catabolism is the degradative reactions that yeild energy
What are the 3 basic mechanisms to cells use to trap energy in the ATP molecule?
1. Substrate Level Phosphorylation
2. Oxidative Phosphorylation
3. Photophosphorylation
What is Substrate Level Phosphorylation?
- energy rich organic molecule degraded (redox)
- a phosphate is transferred to ADP, producing ATP shuttle
What is Oxidative Phosphorylation
-uses O as electron acceptor
-electrons passed fm a "high energy" containing molecule down their gradient to O
-the energy stored in the gradient may produce ATP
What is Photophosphorylation?
The kinetic energy of photons is trapped by pigment molecules and used to generate a gradient, eventually producing ATP
Why does a reduced compound contain more energy than the corresponding oxidized form?
As a reduced compound is oxidized, it will release electrons tt carry away some of its original energy
Outline the steps that food being eaten goes through to yeild energy.
1. Digestion of macromolecules into their component parts in exracellular environment (ie stomach)
2. Enzymatic conversion of diverse sm molecular nutrients into small intermediate molecules such as pyruvate or acetyl-CoA. Can occur in cytosol. Some energy yeild
3. Burning; the complete oxidation of the intermediates, occures in mitochondria, using O and releasing CO2, H2O, and waste. Greatest ATP yield
Give a brief, rough overview of glycolysis.
A. Splitting of one 6C glucose into two 3C pyruvate molecules.
B. Occurs in 10 steps that can be divided into stage 1, 2, & 3.
What is Stage one of glycolysis?
Steps 1-5. Glucose trapped in cell and converted to 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Uses energy!
What is Stage two of glycolysis?
Steps 6&7. Couples oxidation of an aldehyde to an acid w/unfavorable formation of high-energy phosphoanhydride bond. Done 2 ways; by transfer of H to NAD = NADH and phosphate transfered to ADP = ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
What is Stage 3 of Glycolysis?
Step 8-10. Complete conversion of glucose to pyruvate and repaying of evergy investment. 2 new ATPs for each glucose catabolized.
What is the primary function of the citric cycle? Where does it occur?
Occurs in mitochondrion. Oxidizes incoming acetyl-CoA. This releases a series of "high energy electrons" that drive the "electron transport chain" and ultimately ATP production.
Give an overview of the steps in the citric acid cycle, leaving out mention of energy yeild.
- 8 steps.
-In 1st rxn the 2C acetyl group is joined to a 4C compound, yeilding 6C citrate
-In the remaining steps 2 units of CO2 waste are split off, yielding the original starting material, giving the cyclic nature of this cycle.
Describe the outter membrane of the mitochondrion
Has a high content of the protein "mitochondrial porin". Ts protein forms a beta barrel trgh membrane, allowing subtances up to 5000MW to pass
What is the thin ompartment b/w the outter and inner mitochondrial membranes called?
The Intermembrane Space
What is the primary protein in the intermembrane space?
electron transporter cytochrome-c
What are "cristae"?
Folds in the inner membrance of the mitochondrion that increase the surface area.
Is the inner membrane smooth like most cellular membranes?
No, it's got a lg # of particles or projections coming out of it
What are the 4 distinguishing characteristics of the Inner Membrane of a Mitochondrion?
1. The presence of cristae
2. Non smooth membrane
3. It has an unusual lipid composition tt's impermeable to many substances including H+
4. Has a high protein content including diverse transporters, e carriers, and enzymatic proteins
What is the central "fluid" compartment of the mitochondrion called?
Mitochondrial Matrix
What three things can be found in the Mitochondrial matrix?
1.It's densely packed w/protein and particles
2. Enzymes and metabolites of citric acid cycle and beta-oxidation housed here
3. The DNA and ribosomes reside here
Give a brief over view of the electron transport chain process?
the etc receives "high-energy" electrons fm the oxidative rxns of catabolism and passes tm, along w/H+ to O, forming water
The electron transport chain consists of how many lg protein complexes? Where are they located?
Four. Embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane & 2 mobile electron shuttles.
What is Complex I called (of the lg protein complexes in the electron transport chain)? How many subunit proteins does it have?
Dehydrogenase. 20 subunit proteins
How does the NADH Dehydrogenase work?
1. Its FMN (flavin mononucleotide) containing subunit receives a pair of e's fm NADH.
2. In process of ts transfer, NADH releases its H+
3. FMN now passes the e one at a time trgh a series of FeS groups to CoQ (coenzyme Q) held in a binding pocket
What does the movement of electrons trgh Complex I allow the complex to do to maintain the net charge?
The movement releases energy tt alters its structure, allowing it to pump 4H+ fm matrix to intermembrance space
What is another name for Complex II (of the mitochondrion)?
Succinate Dehydrogenase
Succinate Dehydrogenase is not actually a proteinc comples, what is it and wt's it used in?
An enzyme complex of the citric acid cycle tt's associated w/the membrane.
Explain Complex II's role in the electron transport.
The complex releases H+ to matrix and passes the e's via FeS groups to CoQ, but tr isn't enough energy to transport the H+ across the membrane. H+ is transferred to FAD creating FADH2.
What is another name Complex III (of the mitochondrion)?
CoQ/Cyt-c Oxoreductase or Cytochrome bc the "Q-Cycle"
What is so unusual about Complex III?
It is a mobile electron carrier and is highly hydrophobic and able to dissolve and move w/in the lipids of the inner membrane.
What does Complex III do when it recieves electrons fm Complex I or II?
It becomes charged and trapped in the binding pocket. Its high level of charge allows it to absorb 2H+ fm the matrix creating CoQH2. CoQH2 is hydrophobic and able to move freely in the membrane.
How many subunits make up Complex III? What happens when CoQH2 binds to the bindng pocket of Complex III?
11 subunits. The CoQH2 releases its 2H+ into intermembrane space. It transfers 1 of its e's trgh a FeS and cytochrom c1 group to the next mobile carrier Cytochrome-c. Its 2nd e is "recycled" to matrix wr its transferred to a 2nd waiting CoQ molecule.
The energy released overall from the activity of Complex III allows what?
It allows CoQ to "shuttle" 4H+ fm matrix to intermembrance space for every pair of e's transported along the chain.
What's another name for Complex IV?
Cytochrom Oxidase
What is Cytochrome-c?
Its a small protein that's a mobile electron carrier; it carries one e at a time from complex III to IV. It's stuck in the intermembrane space.
How many subunits make up Complex IV? What is subunit 2 responsible for?
13. It's the cytochrome-c docking center. It transfers e's 1 at a time to subunit 1's binuclear reaction center".
What is subunit 1 (of Complex IV) responsible for?
1. Binding Oxygen
2. Transferring e's to O, creating reactive O species
3. Absorbing H+ fm matrix and uniting tm w/the reactive O to form water
4. Using the energy released in process to pump 2H+ fm matrix to intermembrane space for every pair of e's transported
The primary function of the e transport chain is to move H+ fm matrix to intermembrance space. How many H+'s are moved when NADH is the donor (include from wc complexes) and how many when FADH is the donor of e pair
NADH: 4H+ from CI, 4H+ by Q cycle/Complex III and 2H+ fm CIV. Total=1-H+
FADH: only 6H+ since CII doesn't function in H+ movement
The movement of H+ fm the matrix to the intermembrane space does what?...what's its purpose?
It decreases the [H+] inh the matrix and ups it in intermembrane space, setting up a concentration gradient. Also,the matrix becomes more - and i.s. more +, thus an electrical gradient also forms
What is the FoF1 ATP Synthase also called?
F-type Pump and just synthase
What is the Binding Change Mechanism (the steps)?
Refer to last page of section 7 notes
How many ATP are produced from; Glycolysis? Kreb Cycle? Electron Transport chain? Total?
2, 2, 32 =36