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17 Cards in this Set

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What is the most common way to catheterize the left heart?
Introduce cath into brachial or femoral artery and pass retrograde into the left ventricle.
How do you do a right heart catheterization?
Introduce cath into basilic or saphenous vein, enter right heart via SVC
How can pressure be measured in the right heart?
By catheterization
Indirect methods for bp measurement:
-Auscultatory
-Oscillometric
Direct methods for bp measurement:
Catheterization
What is pulmonary wedge pressure an indicator of?
Left heart pressure - uses a balloon inserted via the right heart into pulmonary trunk.
How can you measure Cardiac output?
Thermodilution - put in an indicator dilution and use a temperature sensor to measure the fluid flow.
How is thermodilution done?
-Inject cold saline
-Measure the temperature drop
-Plot Temp vs. Time; area of temp drop is ppl to CO
What is a method for measuring cardiac output similar to thermodilution?
Dye dilution
What method allows measurement of CO without any injection or catheters?
FICK PRINCIPLE
What is the fick principle?
What goes in = what goes out:
CO = O2 absorbed by lungs / O2 content difference between A-V
What is the function of an Intra-aortic balloon pump?
To support circulation after
-MI
-Severe heart failure
-Difficult weaning post bypass
For intra-aortic balloon pumps
-When is it inflated?
-When is it deflated?
Inflate = Diastole (augment)

Deflate = systole (suck)
How does an intra-aortic balloon pump physiologically support heart pumping?
It decreases afterload so the heart pumps against less pressure.
What is a technique used to measure heart FUNCTION?
Radionuclide imaging
How does radionuclide imaging work?
Myocardium takes up radionuclide; if areas are ischemic, they won't take it up.
Measure w/ Gamma scan
What is a totally non-invasive way to evaluate heart function?
Echocardiography - ultrasound