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76 Cards in this Set

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What is the derivation of the word yoga?
Yujir = to bind, join, yoke. It means union.
Yuj = restraint.
What is the definition of yoga?
Yoga is the union of the individual self with the universal self. It is an art which brings a scattered mind to a coherent state to have communion with Divinity.
What is the basic text of yoga?
Patanjala yoga sutra = the yoga sutras (aphorisms) of Patanjali.
How many chapters and sutras are in the Patanjala Yoga Sutra?
Four padas, or chapters, and 196 sutras.
How has Patanjali described yoga? (sutra)
Yoga cittavrtti nirodhah (1st Pada, 2nd sutra).
Citta = consciousness
Vrtti = modifications of consciousness
Nirodhah = restraint or cessation
Yoga is the cessation of movements in the consciousness.
What are the eight limbs of yoga (Sanskrit)?
What are yamas (general definition)?
Universal moral injunctions
Ethical disciplines that govern one's social conduct towards others
What are the five Yamas (Sanskrit and English translation)?
Ahimsa = nonviolence
Satya = truth
Asteya = non-stealing
Bramacharya = continenance
Aparigraha = non-covetessness, non-hoarding
What are niyamas?
Individual disciplines
Rules of conduct towards oneself
What are the five niyamas?
Saucha = cleanliness
Santosa = contentment
Tapas = ardor
Svadhyaya = Study of scriptures, study of the self
Isvara pranidhana = surrendering the fruits of our actions to the Lord
What is Iyengar yoga?
Iyengar yoga is classical Astanga (8-limbed) yoga, as defined and taught by Sri BKS Iyengar. Mr. Iyengar focuses on correct understanding and action in asana and pranayama, as well as practice of asana and pranayama within the context of study of all 8 limbs of yoga. Mr. Iyengar believes that yoga is for all - young and old, flexible and stiff, weak and strong. He provides guidance in use of props such as the wall, bricks, straps, blankets, and ropes, so that all can practice poses safely and correctly, while exploring the next level in their practice of asana.
What is the 1st line of the invocation & what does it mean?
Yogena cittasya padena vacam
Patanjali gave us yoga to still the consciousness (citta) and grammar to purify our words (pada) and speech (vacam)
What is the 2nd line of the invocation & what does it mean?
Malam sarirasya ca vaidyakena
He gave us the science of medicine (vaidyakena) to cure illnesses (malam) of the body
What is the 3rd line of the invocation & what does it mean?
Yopakarottam pravaram muninam
Let me draw near to the one who has given us these things
What is the 4th line of the invocation & what does it mean?
Patanjali pranjalir anottos'mi
I bow with folded hads to the Lord Patanjali
What is the 5th line of the invocation & what does it mean?
Abahu purusakaram
From the hand to the head (abahu) he has the shape (karam) of a person (purusa)
What is the 6th line of the invocation & what does it mean?
Sanka cakrasi dharinam
In his hand he holds a conch (sanka) and disk (cakra)
What is the 7th line of the invocation & what does it mean?
Sahasra sirasam swettam
On his head is the thousand (sahasra) - headed (sirsa) white (swettam) cobra
What is the 8th line of the invocation & what does it mean?
Pranamami Patanjalim
I bow to the Lord Patanjali
How many groups of asanas are described in "Yoga in Action"?
What are the groups of asanas described in "Yoga in Action"?
Utthista sthiti = Standing
Upavista sthiti = Sitting
Paschima pratana sthiti = forward extensions
Supta sthiti = Reclining poses
Purva pratana sthiti = Back extensions
Parivrtta sthiti - lateral extensions
Viparita sthiti = Inversions
Visranta Karaka asanas = Restorative asanas
Tadasana (translate name and categorize pose)
Tada = mountain
Asana = posture
Standing - Utthistha sthiti
(Translate and name type of pose)
Tree pose
Utthista sthiti
Utkata = fierce. Commonly called "chair pose"
Utthista sthiti
Utthita Trikonasana
Extended triangle pose
Utthista sthiti
Virabhadrasana II
Warrior II, pose dedicated to Virabhadra, the great warrior created from a strand of Shiva's matted locks
Utthista sthiti
Utthita Parsvakonasana
Extended Side Angle pose
Utthista sthiti
Ardha Chandrasana
Half moon pose
Utthista sthiti
Parsva = side, Ut = intense, Tan = stretch
(arms down, concave and convex)
Utthista sthiti
What are options for positions of the hands in Parsvottanasana?
1-Hands down to floor or blocks
2-Clasp elbows behind the waist
3-Paschima namaskar
Gate pose
Utthista sthiti
Pada = foot or leg, angustha = toe
(concave and downward-extending spine)
Utthista sthiti
Pada = foot or leg, hasta = hand
(concave and downward-extending spine)
Utthista sthiti
Ut = intense, tan = stretch
(concave spine)
Utthista sthiti
Adho Mukha Svanasana
Adho = down, Mukha = face, Svana = dog
(with support: hands or feet to wall, or head to block)
Utthista sthiti
Staff pose
Upavista sthiti
Cow face pose
(arms only)
Utthista sthiti (for arms only variation)
Prasarita Padottanasana
Prasarita = spread out, pada = foot, Ut = intense, Tan = stretch
(concave back)
Utthista sthiti
Siddha = perfect, accomplished
Upavista sthiti (???)
Hero pose
Upavista sthiti
Parvatasana in Svastikasana
Parvata = a mountain
Svastika = sign of auspiciousness
Upavista sthiti
Triang Mukhaikapada Paschimottanasana
Triang = 3 base (foot, knee, buttock), Mukha = face, eka = one, pada = foot or leg, paschima = west, ut = intense, tan = stretch
Forward extension - Paschima Pratana sthiti
Marichysana I
Pose in honor of the sage Marichy(?), son of Brahman and grandfather of Surya, the sun god
(twist only)
Paschima Pratana sthiti
Wreath pose
(a-sacrum to wall, arms // floor)
(b-away from wall, feet on rolled blanket, knees together, arms // floor)
(alternative name for what pose)
Sama = Still, stable
Sthiti = Straight, balanced
(alternative name for Tadasana)
Standing - Utthistha sthiti
Salamba Sarvangasana I
Sa = with
Alamba= a support or prop
Sarva = all
Anga = limb or body
I (one) - hands on back
Inversion - Viparita sthiti
What are the benefits of Salamba Sarvangasana?
It develops patience and emotional stability. It rests the heart and brings fresh blood to the chest. Due to the chinlock the thyroid parathyroid glands get an ample supply of blood. Because the head remains firm, nerves are soothed and headaches disappear.
Halasana (modification)
Hala = plow
(Feet on stool)
Inversion - Viparita sthiti
Karna = ear
Pida = pressure
Inversion - Viparita sthiti
Supta Konasana
Supta = lying down
Kona = angle
Inversion - Viparita sthita
Chatush Padasana
Chatur = four
Pada = foot
Setubandha Sarvangasana
Setu Bandha = formation of a bridge
Sarva = entire, all
Anga = limb, body
(sacrum supported on a block)
Restorative - Visranta Karaka Asana (per Preliminary Course)
Urdhva Prasarita Padasana (modification)
Urdhva = upright, above, high
Prasarita = extended, stretched out
Pada = foot
(90 degrees)
Abdominal - Udara akunchana sthiti
Bharadvajasana I (modification)
Bharadvaaja = father of Drona, a military leader
(turning, without holding the upper arm)
Lateral extension - Parivrtta sthiti
Savasana (modification)
Sava = corpse
(on bolster with eyes covered)
Restorative - Visranta karaka asana
Translate Ujjayi Pranayama.
Jud = upwards or expanding, Jaya = victory or conquest. In Ujjayi Pranayama the chest and lungs are fully expanded like those of a hero or conqueror.
Describe Ujjayi I
Reclining, normal inhalation (Puraka), natural pause, normal exhalation (Rechaka). Expand the chest upwards and outwards. Fill and empty both lungs evenly.
Describe Ujjayi II
Reclining, normal inhalation (Puraka), slow, deep and complete exhalation (Rechaka). Expand the chest upwards and outwards on the inhalation. Fill and empty both lungs evenly.
What are acceptable positions for Ujjayi II?
Reclining. Any arrangement of blankets or support so that head is tilted slightly down (chin below forehead), chest is broad and lifted, abdomen soft, lumbar spine long, and legs straight and fully supported by the floor.
Describe Viloma I
Reclining. Interrupted Puraka (e.g. 2 sec inhale, 2 sec hold, etc.) until lungs are full; followed by complete and uninterrupted Rechaka, followed by normal pause.
Describe Viloma II
Reclining. Slow, complete uninterrupted inhalation (Puraka), followed by interrupted exhalation (Rechaka) until lungs are emptied, followed by normal pause.
What is the function of Jalandhara Bandha?
It regulates the flow of blood and Prana to the heart and to the glands in the neck and to the brain.
What are the benefits of Pranayama?
It calms the nerves and cools the brain. The chest feels strong and the body light and fresh. (GFW p. 309)
Translate Viloma Pranayama
Vi = negation, Loma = hair. Viloma means against the hair, or against the natural order. In Viloma Pranayama either the inhalation or exhalation of the breath is interrupted.
What is the position of the hands in sitting Pranayama?
Rest the back of the wrists on the knees/thighs and place the hands in Jnana Mudra (thumb & index finger touching) with the other fingers loose.
What are the 4 stages to learn Virab I, as described in "Preliminary Course"?
1- Turn the torso
2-Turn the torso and bend the front leg
3-Extend the arms to the side (Vimanasana)
4-Extend the arms overhead
What poses on the T-in-T syllabus should be avoided during menses?
Ardha halasana
Salamba sarvangasana
Supta konasana
What is the position of the head in sitting Pranayama?
The chin rests on the notch between the collarbones & the neck & throat are contracted. Jalandhara Bandha or chin lock. Jala = net, bandha = binding.
Name and translation of 1st Pada of Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Samadhi Pada
Sama = level, impartial, good
Adhi = over and above (the seer)
Samadhi = last stage of the 8-fold path of yoga, seeing the soul face to face (LOYSP p.4)
Theme of 1st Pada of Yoga Sutras
It describes the nature of Samadhi. For those who are highly evolved, it enables them to maintain their state of wisdom. For the uninitiated majority, it is an enticing prospect, drawing us to the path of yogic discipline (LOYSP p 4-5)
Name and translation of 2nd Pada of Yoga Sutras
Sadhana Pada
Sadhana = practice
Theme of 2nd Pada
Teaching the spiritually unevolved how to practice and to follow the yogic path. Defines the 8 limbs. Explores in depth the first 5 limbs.
Name and translation of 3rd Pada
Vibhuti Pada
Vibhuti = Powers, properties of yoga
Theme of 3rd Pada
Describes the divine effects of yoga practice (Sadhana)
Name and translation of 4th Pada
Kaivalya Pada
Kaivalya = absolute state of aloneness, eternal emancipation
Theme of 4th Pada
Distinguishes kaivalya from samadhi. In Samadhi, the sadhakha experiences a passive state of oneness between the seer and the seen. In kaivalya, he lives in a positive state of life, above the influences of nature.