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89 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between breathing and respiration?
Breathing is an exchange of gases.

Respiration is a reaction in the celss to release energy.
Write out the equation for respiration.
Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY
What part of the air do we take into our blood and why?
Oxygen - needed for respiration in cells - it is carried by red blood cells (Haemoglobin)
What do we breathe out that is a waste product from respiration?
Carbon Dioxide (dissolved in plasma in blood)
Where does carbon dioxide come from?
Respiration in cells, waste product
What carries the oxygen in our blood?
Haemoglobin in red blood cells
What is the function of white blood cells in our body?
to fight disease - two type: lymphocytes make antibodies, and phagocytes digest germs
What vessesl carry blood away from the heart?
arteries
What vessels carry blood back to our heart?
veins
What is the name of the vessel that has thin walls, which helps food, oxygen and waste pass through to neighbouring cells?
Capillaries
What are the 7 nutrients required for a balanced diet?
Carbohydrates
Fat
Protein
Vitamins
Minerals
Fibre
Water
Where does digestion start in our bodies?
in our mouth
Why is it dangerous to eat too much saturated fat in our diet?
It can lead to deposits of fat in our blood vessels, which can cause heart attacks; also leads to obesity
Why do we need to chew our food?
To mix it with saliva to make it easier to swallow and to make it into smaller bits to ease digestion
What breaks down food molecules in our alimentary canal?
Enzymes
Why do foods need to be broken down in our alimentary canal?
So that they are soluble and small enought to dissolve into the blood stream
What do carbohydrates give us in our bodies?
Glucose - needed for energy
What do proteins give us in our bodies?
Amino acids - needed for growth, repair of celss
What do fats give us in our bodies?
fatty acids and glycerol - energy and insulation of cells
Why is our stomach pH2 (give 2 reasons)?
Kill bacteria

help digestion of protein
Why is the small intestine so good at absorbing food? (give 3 reasons)
1. it is long and thus has a very large surface area
2. thin lining
3. good blood supply
What do our kidneys do in our body?
Remove waste chemicals from the blood, urea
What does a lack of Vitamin C cause?
Scurvy
What type of food fixes scurvy?
Citrus fruits, watercress
What does the lack of calcium cause?
rickets
What type of food will fix rickets disease?
fish, dairy products
What is the test for starch?
Brown iodine solution -> blue/black
What is meant by egestion?
getting rid of solid waste products from digestion
What is meant by excretion?
Getting rid of waste chemicals from reaction in cells
What is the test for CO2 and how do you know if CO2 is present?
Limewater goes from clear to cloudy
What are the three main functions of the skeleton?
Support, movement and protection
What do antagonistic muscles mean?
Muscles that work in pairs, but in opposite direction
What is a ligament?
Tissue which attaches bones together
What is a tendon?
Tissue which attaches muscles to bones
Where does fertilisation occur in a human?
Oviduct
Where does pollination occur on a plant?
Stigma
Where does fertilisation occur in a plant?
Ovary
What is the function of the flower on a plant?
Reproduction
Why do plant seeds have to be dispersed?
To improve the chances of survival for the plant
Name the 4 types of seed dispersal.
Animal, wind, water, explosion (self dispersal)
Explain pollination
the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma
Explain fertilisation
the fusing of male and female sex cells
Explain how the fruit is formed
the ovary swells
What are the three conditions needed for germination?
warmth, water, oxygen
Where is sperm deposited if fertilisation is to occur in humans?
vagina
Where are sperm produced in male humans?
Testes
Where are eggs produced in female humans?
Ovaries
After fertilisation occurs in a plant, what is the ovule and pollen called?
Zygote
What does a zygote in a plant develop into?
seed
What does the ovary in a plant develop into?
Fruit
Why has the egg have a yolk in humans?
to provide the developing zygote with a food source
What is the fertilised egg in a human called after fertilisation?
zygote
What is a developing baby nourished by?
Placenta
What are the two main substances transferred from the mother to the foetus?
oxygen and food
What are the two main substances that are transferred from the foetus to the mother?
carbon dioxide and urea
What are the three harmful substances in smoking?
Nicotine, carbon monoxide and tar
What are three diseases that smoking can cause?
lung cancer, emphysema, bronchitis
Name one bacterial disease and one caused by a virus.
Bacteria -- salmonella, pneumonia, tuberculosis

Virus -- chicken pox, flu, AIDS, measles
What are the four factors that affect photosynthesis?
sunlight, heat, water, and carbon dioxide
Write the word equation for photosynthesis
carbon dioxide + water -> glucose + oxygen

(sunlight and chlorophyll over the arrow)
Explain how we could test a leaf to see if it contains starch.
boil it in water (soften cuticle), place in hot ehtanol (to remove chlorophyll), rinse, use iodine solution
Describe an experiment where we showed that oxygen is produced in photosynthesis.
using pondweed - by placing upturned funnel and test tube to collect gas - relights glowing splint
How did we show that by increasing light intensity we increased the rate of photosynthesis?
counting the bubbles produced by pondweed as light was moved closer, the rate increased
What is the function of chloroplasts - where will you find most of them in a plant?
they contain chlorophyll to trap sunlight for photosynthesis - they are found mainly in palisade cells in top of leaf
What are the functions of leaves?
to absorb sunlight for photosynthesis and gas exchange
What are the functions of stems?
to support leaves, provide structure
What are the functions of roots?
to absorb water and minerals and anchor plant
What are the functions of root hair?
to increase surface area of root to absorb water
What are the three minerals needed for growth of plants?
nitrogen, potassium, and phosphates
How does carbon get from the air into animal cells?
by plants photosynthesising, animals eating plants and digestion of food into blood stream
How does nitrogen get into the soil?
Decomposition of dead and decaying organisms.
What is pollution?
Carbon dioxide adding to global warming. CFC's reducing the ozone layer. Sulphur dioxide leading to acid rain.
What is meant by environmental variation?
Variation in organisms that is affected by how things live, eat, schooling, etc. (eg. weight)
What is the function of the nucleus?
To control the production of proteins in the cell and control the function of the cell. It determines characteristics as it contains genes.
What is a chromosome?
Inside a nucleus, there are pairs of threadlike chromosomes (23 pairs in humans)
What do chromosomes do?
Carry genes which determine our characteristics
Where do you find chromosomes?
In pairs inside the nucleus of each cell (except gametes - sex cells, which only contain half of the genetic information)
How many chromosomes does a human have?
23 pairs or 46
How many chromosomes does an egg and sperm have and why?
23 single chromosomes, so that when fertilisation occurs, the new cell has a complete set
What is a gene?
Genes are made up of DNA and carry genetic information, they are like beads on a necklace
Name the five kingdoms.
Animal, Plant, Bacteria, Fungi and Single-celled organisms
Name the five vertebrate (chordate) phylums and 2 characteristics for each phylum.
Mammal - fur and give birth to live young (feed milk)

Bird - feathers, lay hard shelled eggs

Fish - gills, soft scales, soft eggs laid in water

Amphibian - slimy damp skin, soft eggs laid in water

Reptile - hard scales, leathery eggs laid on land
What is the difference between arachnids and insects?
Insect - 3 pairs legs, 3 body parts, wings, antennae

Arachnid - 4 pairs legs, 2 body parts, no antennae
Draw a food chain
seeds -> mouse -> owl
Name two habitats that you have studied and write about how you investigated the organism in that habitat.
Pond - pond dipping

Woodland - quadrats
Chose one habitat and show how you would estimate the population of one animal.
Revise how to carry out sample of organism - quadrats
Explain how you would set up a microscope to look at a specimen already prepared for you.
Mirror in the correct place, place the slide on stage and clip into place. Put nto lowest magnification, wind focus down to the lowest and focus upwards (so as not to damage slide) use coarse focus first and then fine focus. Change objective lens to increase magnification.
How would you prepare a specimen to look at under a microscope?
Take a thin piece of onion skin, plce flat on clean slide, stain with iodine solution and place cover slip over the top (ensure no air bubbles). For human or other cells, use methylene blue as the stain.
How are cilated epithelial cells adapted to carry out their job in the lining of the windpipe?
They have small hairs which have a coating of mucus which traps germs and then beat in a rythm to pass the mucus up and out of the windpipe.