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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What percentage of people with have some type of anxiety in their lifetime?
What is the concordance among family members of specific phobias?
In general what is the familial relationship of anxiety disorders (%)?
In order to create an amnestic effect what should a drug target and where in the brain?
A drug should target the GABA channel in the Hippocampus area (the memory forming area). By activating GABA channels the neuron is hyperpolarized preventing signal propogation. In the hippocampal area memory formation is inhibited by lack of signal transduction.
What are the diagnostic criteria for Generalized anxiety disorder?
Excessive anxiety and worry occuring more often than not for at least 6 months about a number of events or activities
Worry difficult to control
Association with 3 or more fo the following 6 symptoms:
Easily fatigued
Impaired concentration
Muscle tension, like in the neck, back, shoulders
Sleep disturbance because you cannot stop worrying
Symptoms must not be due to an axis I disorder to be considered generalized anxiety disorder
Must not occur exclusively during another mental disorder to be considered GAD
Define Behavioral Inhibition
When a child is exposed to a stranger and the child tends to freeze and take a low profile while figuring out if the stranger is a friendly person or a bad person
Describe the Attention Biaz Hypothesis
Anxious person selectively zoms in and concerns themself with the bad and scary aspects of life
Describe Panic disorder
Explosive experience where one may be sitting around feeling fine and suddenly get a thought that something is wrong. Instead of ignoring the feeling the attack builds and finally they have flushing, sweating, etc. The begin to think they are having a heart attack or a stroke or some other medical issue which adds to the intensity.
What is Agoraphobia
Disorder when you have anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or help may be unavailable in the event of a panic attack or panic symptom
What is the diagnostic criteria for panic disorder with agoraphobia?
Must have both recurrent unexpected panic attacks and at least one month of the following:
concern about additional attacks
Worry about the attacks that have past
Change in behavior related to the attacks
Presence of agoraphobia
What is Klein's 3 component model of panic disorder?
Panic attacks themselves
Anticipatory anxiety
Phobic Avoidance
What is the recovery rate for major depression, panic attacks without agoraphobia, and panic attacks with agoraphobia?
80% within 2 years, 40%, and 20% respectively
Are patients with social phobias (social anxiety disorders) aware that their fear is excessive or unreasonable?
Yes (duh!)
What are the defining factors of social phobias?
Marked or persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations
Exposure provokes anxiety including panic attacks
Duration must be at least 6 months
What are the two broad types of treatment for anxiety disorders?
Psychotherapy and Medications
What is a form of psychotherapy treatment and how is it performed?
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) - uses techniques of putting these patients in situations that they fear and helping them deal with the fear. Involves systematic desensitization
In the treatement of anxiety disorders does psychotherapy and medication have the same intent or treatment target?
No. medications are for a different group of symptoms than Cognitive behavioral therapy. Medications have no benefit in the central perception of anxiety
What is the SSRI paradox in the treatment of anxiety disorders?
highly anxious patients given an SSRI can actually have more anxiety due to an increase in sympathetic tone. Over time you can gain tolerance, but highly anxious patients never establish tolerance. The work around is to slowly build up the dose levels.
What is the primary determinant of duration of action in a single dose drug?
Volume of Distribution
What is the primary determinant of duration of action foor multiple dose drugs?
Half life. Typically short half life drugs are used for sleep aids while long half life drugs are used in treatment of GAD (generalized anxiety disorders)
What are the three indicated benzodiazapenes that do not have reactive metabolites and can be used in patients with liver disease?
Temazepam (Restoril)
Oxazapam (Serax)
Lorazepam (Ativan)
What should be the definition of addiction to a drug?
Use of a drug in such a way that the person has lost control of the use of the substance and it is now impairing their ability to function instead of helping them function and they are now denying that they have this impairment