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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what types of contraceptives are the most effective overall? which 2 are the least effective overall?
most effective: implants, vasectomy, female sterilization and IUD
least: withdrawal and spermicide.
what are the 6 contraceptive methods?
periodic abstience
mechanical barriers
hormonal contraceptives
emergency contraception (postcoital)
what are the advantages and disadvantages of coitus interruptus/ withdrawal?
advantage: immediate availability, no device, no cost
disadvantage: pregnancy w/ incorrect use.
how long is menses recorded for the calendar method?
recorded for 6 cycles (6 months) to approximate the fertile period
how do you calculate the fertile phase via the calendar method? what does the numbers mean?
-subtract 18 from the shortest cycle --> first day of fertile phase
-subtract 11 from the longest cycle--> last day of fertile phase

avoid sex during those days.
who can use cycle beads? what is the use?
women with 26 to 32 day menstrual cycles to recognize the 12 days each month that they are potentially fertile.
how can mucus changes predict fertility?
the thinner the mucus, the more fertile you are. The thicker the mucus, the greater the barrier.
Basel body temp is relatively low during what phase? in what phase does it rise? why does it rise? when can you resume intercourse?
BBT - low during follicular phase
Rises in the luteal phase d/t thermogenic effect of progesterone
elevated temp begins 1-2 days after ovulation and you can resume intercourse 3 days after temp rise.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of BBT?
advantage: acceptable to couples for cultural and religious reasons, suitable w/ regular and predictable cycles
disadvantage: discipline, failure rate high and does not protect against STD's
what type of contraception provides the most effective protection of the genital tract for STD's?
male condom
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the male codom?
advantage: readily available and inexpensive
disadvantage: decreased enjoyment and oil-based lubricants may damage the condom

The reality condom is recommended for use w/ the male codom.

they are NOT recommended because they adhere to each other.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the cervical cap?
advantage: continuous contraceptive protection for the duration of use regardless of intercourse ( can be left in for 48 hrs)

disadvantage: requires visit for fitting, can cause cerical erosion, can dislodge w/ intercourse. Can also get Toxic shock syndrome.
what is a diaphragm? How often should you add spermicide?
a shallow latex cup w/ a spring mechanism in rim to hold it in place in the vagina. Add spermicide w/ each coitus.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the diaphragm?
advantages: acts as a barrier of semen, effective for 6 hours, non-hormone, controlled by user.
disadvantage: must be fitted, must add additional spermicide w/ each coitus, if left longer than 24 hours may cause Toxic shock syndrome.
what chemical basis do spermicidal agents contain?
base combined w/ either nooxynol-9 or octoxynol --> destroys sperm cell membrane and flagella
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the spermicidal agents?
advantages: reduces the risk of infection by both viral and bacterial organisms that cause STD's, ease of application, no adverse systemic effects.

disadvantages: minimal protection of STDs, irritation and allergic reactions. Must be inserted into the vagina prior to each coital act.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the of DMPA (injected contraceptive)?
advantage: single dose suppresses FSH and LH for up to 14 weeks, 97% effective
disadvantage: unpredictable menstrual patterns, weight gain, reversible loss of bone mineral density, and some mood changes.
what is the MOA of oral and implant contraceptives?
inhibition of ovulation w/ suppression of FSH and LH levels eliminating the LH surge which results in a hypo estrogenic state.
what is implanon?
a single rod implant contraceptive assoc w/ higher frequency of amenorrhea, decreased adverse effects. Can keep it for 4-5 years and 99% efficacy.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the implanon?
advantage: 99% efficacy, no effect on breast milk, rapid return of fertility state
disadvantage: minor surgical procedure for insertion and removal
what form of oral contraceptive can you give to breastfeeding women? why?
progestin-only "minipills"

-it suppresses ovulation, increases cervical mucus viscosity, thinning of endometrium and won't cross into the breast mild.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the progestin-only contraceptive pills?
advantages: decreased dysmenorrhea, decreased PMS and endometriosis
disadvantages: continuous need for compliance (within 3 hours after the time of regular administration--> very tight time frame), breast tenderness, headache and amenorrhea.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of the oral contraceptives?
advantages: tx of menstural irregularities, reduce anemia secondary to menorrhagia, prevent benign conditions, prevent epithelial ovarian and endometrial cancer.
disadvantages: nausea, amenorrhea, venous thrombosis, htn, hepatocellular adenoma
CI for oral contraceptives:
cerebrovascular dz, coronary artery dz, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, chf, estrogen-dependent neoplasia, breast ca, pregnancy, liver dz, over 35 and smoking cigarettes
Describe the nuva ring.
flexible colorless ring that releases hormones slowly absorbable by reproductive organs--> lowest dose of ethinyl estradiol. Same schedule as OCP- 3 on, 1 off.
describe the hormonal patch.
combo estrogen and progesterone released into skin- releases a sustained low daily dose of steroids equivalent to the lowest dose oral contraceptive
what are the advantages and disadvantages of hormonal patch?
advantage: greater compliance and decrease adverse effects (such as N/V) d/t avoidance of 1st pass effect
disadvantage: CI similar to those of combo OCPs.
what is the black box warning assoc w/ hormonal patch?
that these women on the patch are exposed to about 60% more total estrogen in the blood then if they were taking an OCP.
which IUD is effective for 10 years and which one for 5? Besides pt wishing not to get pregnant, who else could you give the Mirena to?
copper-10 yr effectiveness
mirena- 5 yr

Give Mirena to pt who is complaining of dysmenorrhea, PMS, or heavy bleeding
what are the three ways to sterilize a female? sterilze a male?
surgical tubual, essure tubual, adiana tubua

men: vasectomy
what are the advantages and disadvantages of female sterilization?
advantages: no hormones, permanent, same-day procedure
disadvantages: may involve general or regional anesthesia, permanent
what are the advantages and disadvantages of male sterilization?
advantage: no hormones, permanent, outpatient
disadvantage: permanent.
which emergency contraceptive pill is a 2 pill dose taken w/n the first 72 hours after unprotected intercourse w/ each pill taken 12 hours apart?

plan B is one dose no later than 72 hours after unprotected intercourse w/ second dose w/n 12 hours.
which emergency contraceptive can you take within 5 days of unprotected intercourse?

selective progesterone receptor
You are counseling a patient regarding contraception options. She is 36 years old, she smokes cigarettes and weighs 186 pounds. She is sexually active and in a monogamous relationship. Of the following, which is her best contraception option:
a. combination estrogen and progesterone pills
b. transdermal patch with estrogen and progesterone
c. intravaginal ring delivering estrogen and progesterone
d. intrauterine device
e. emergency contraception
Of the following methods of contraception, which is is most frequently used by women in their reproductive years?
a. oral contraceptives
b. intrauterine device
c. progestin injections
d. sterilization
e. intravaginal contraceptive ring

sterilization is #2