• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/9

Click to flip

9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
MECHANISM: Acute Appendicitis
Luminal obstruction (Fecaliths; or less commonly gallstones, tumour, mass of worms)
-> Iscahemic injury (vascular compression) + luminal stasis
-> Bacterial proliferation
-> Inflammation
-> Eedema, neutrophilic infiltrate
Acute Appendicitis: Pathology
Early:
Congestion + neutrophilic infiltrate

Later:
Glistening serosa -> Dull, granular, erythematous

Dx: Netrophilic infiltration of muscularis propria
Acute Appendicitis: Complications
Abscesses
Ulceration
Ganrenous necrosis -> rupture + suppurative peritonitis
Acute Appendicitis: Clinical features

One is a classical finding
Typical: Periumbilical pain
-> Localises to right lower quadrant

Followed by:
Nausea & Vomiting
Low fever
Mildly raised peripheral white cell count

Classical finding: McBurney's sign

Symptoms/signs often absent
Acute Appendicitis: Classical finding
Classical finding:
McBurney's sign
(deep tenderness, 2/3 from umbilicus to right ASIS [McBurney's point])
Acute Appendicitis: Unusual pain referrals
Retrocaecal appendix can refer pain to flank or back

Malrotated colons can produce pain in unusual areas
Acute Appendicitis: Tx
Appendectomy
Low risk, risk-benefit ratio good
Acute Appendicitis: Complications
Delayed resection of inflamed appendix:
Appendiceal perforation
Pyelophlebitis (inflam of veins of renal pelvis)
Portal venous thrombosis
Liver abscess
Bacteraemia
Appendiceal tumour: Carcinoid

Clinical presentation
Carcinoid = Most common tumour of appendix

Usu affects most distal tip of appendix -> solid bulb to 2-3cm diameter

*Characteristic yellow colour

Metastasis rare