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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

And which nervous system are they apart of?
12, PNS
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

And which nervous system are they apart of?
31, PNS
Where does the spinal cord terminate?

Is the spinal cord longer when you are an adult or baby?
Between L1 and L2 disks.
It is called Conus Medullaris.

Initially, spinal cord is whole length of vertebrum. At birth spinal cord ends at L3.
How do lower spinal nerves (lumbar, sacral, coccygeal) differ from cervical spinal nerves?
lower spinal nerves are longer and more oblique.

called cauda equina.
Is the 5th cervical nerve above or below C5?

Is the 7th lumbar nerve above or below L7?
above, below
In what section of the vertebra are ventral horns present?
T1 - L2
Below the conus medullaris, the spinal cord is continued, a delicate filament of non-nervous tissue made of.... called....
pia mater,
internal filum terminale
Enlargements along spinal cord:
- why do they exist?
- where are they
- these are areas of cord to which spinal nerves innervating either upper or lower limbs are attached
- Cervical enlargement (C4-T1)
- Lumbrosacral enlargement (L2-S3)
What innervates upper limbs?

What innervates lower limbs?
brachial plexus,

lumbar and sacral plexus
What are the 2 types of ganglia?

In which does a synapse occur?
Sensory (dorsal)
autonomic (ventral)

Synapse occurs in autonomic ganglia
What is the difference betwen general and special nerve fibers?
General nerve fibers distribute to tissues or structures with a relatively wide distribution in the body.
Special nerve fibers go to restricted tissue.
What would a sensory fiber coming from the skin be classified as?
General, Somatic, Afferent
- skin covers body
- sensory impulse
- coming from skin to CNS
What would retinal fibers be classified as?
Special, Somatic, Afferent
- retina is only found in back of eye
- sensory impulses convey images
- coming from eye to CNS
How many functional components can cranial/spinal nerves have and why?
can have up to 7 functional components.
Not 8 b/c
special somatic efferent
catergory is considered not to exist.
Do special components occur in cranial nerves?
Yes, and only in some cranial nerves. not spinal.
Where does the spinal cord end?

What is it called?
L1 and L2

Conus Medullaris
Where are the enlargements?
1. Cervical Enlargement C4-T1

2. Lumbosacral enlargement L2-S3
What is the internal filum terminale?
delicate filament of non-nervous tissue made of pia mater, below the conus medullaris
Where is the termination of the dural sac?
What does the ventral horn contain?
Dorsal horn?
Lateral horn?
T1-L2: contains cell bodies of autonomic motor neuros. These neurons supply the involuntary structures of body
Why is the Great Anterior MEdullary Segmental artery/artery of Adamkiewicz important?
It is larger and supplies the lumbral-sacral enlargement of the spinal cord. Occlusion would lead to paralysis of both limbs.
Where does the arachnoid mater end?
Where is the epidural space?
Between dura mater + periosteum lining vertebral canal.
Where is a lumbar puncture done?
What is withdrawn?
lumbar cistern area is entered, which is a part of the subarachnoid space between L2 and S2. Usually needle is inserted btwn L3 and L4.
What fiber category doesn't exist and will never be an answer on a test?

Special somatic efferent