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33 Cards in this Set

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Active transport
Used to move larger molecules across the membrane OR to move molecules from a low concentration to high concentration.(large size molecules)  
Cell cycle
1. 
Chlorophyll
green plant pigment that absorbs the sunlight needed for photosynthesis.
Chromatid
Either of the two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome that are joined by a single centromere and separate during cell division
Chromosome
A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in.
Cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following division of the nucleus.
Statististics
a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters
Fertilization
Conception and fertility The penetration of the egg by the sperm and the resulting fusion of genetic material that develops into an embryo
Diffusion
process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to low concentration. diFFusion=stuFF *the primary method that small molecules can move across the cell membrane  
Fermentation
One process by which carbon-containing compounds are broken down in an energy yielding process. Fermentation occurs during times of low oxygen supply and is therefore known as a type of anaerobic respiration.
Genotype
The entire genetic identity of an individual, including alleles, or gene forms, that do not show as outward characteristics
Dominant
gene that produces the same phenotype in the organism whether or not its allele identical; "the dominant gene for brown eyes
Gene
A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism. Genes undergo mutation when their DNA sequence changes
Heterozygous
A cell or an organism that has two different alleles for a particular trait.
Probability
measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction involving the union of gametes producing an offspring with traits from both parents
Homozygous
A cell or an organism that has identical rather than different alleles for a particular trait.
Mitosis
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells during which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes
Interphase
the period before cell division  
Phenotype
The observable characteristics of an individual.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water molecules across a cell membrane from one area of concentration.  
Passive transport
the movement of materials in or out of the cell without the need for energy  
Punnett square
A Punnett square is a chart which shows/predicts all possible gene combinations in a cross of parents (whose genes are known). Punnett squares are named for an English geneticist, Reginald Punnett. He discovered some basic principles of genetics, including sex linkage and sex determination. He worked with the feather color traits of chickens in order to quickly separate male and female chickens
Asexual reproduction
In asexual reproduction, only one parent is needed, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent -- clones
Trait
a distinguishing feature of your personal nature
Respiration
a distinguishing feature of your personal nature
Replication
the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
Recessive
a recessive gene is a gene that does not express its instructions when paired with a dominant gene
Selectively permeable
A membrane that allows only certain materials to cross it
Photosynthesis
is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things. The conversion of unusable sunlight energy into usable chemical energy, is associated with the actions of the green pigment chlorophyll. Most of the time, the photosynthetic process uses water and releases the oxygen that we absolutely must have to stay alive.
Zygote
diploid cell formed as a result of fusion of two haploid nuclei during sexual reproduction
Gregor Mendel
is often called the "father of genetics" for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants
Selective breeding
The selection of certain seeds or animals for reproduction in order to influence the traits inherited by the next generation.