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39 Cards in this Set

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Creatine: subs, prod, enz
R+G ->(orn out) ->->(SAM used) ->creatine

xamidase-> methyltransferase
Creatine: jobs and uses
store high NRG (P)

excrete N in urine (90%urea, 10%NH4 and Creat.)

measure of muscle mass and kidney prob
Glutathione: subs, prod, enz
E+C->->+Glycine->glutathione
Glutathione: jobs
amino acid xport (except Pro)

reductant (H2O2)

increased by: ^Met,Cys,GSH precursors
decreased: glutamate analogs->vGSH->^sens. or tumor cells to irrad.
Nitric oxide: subs, interm., characteristics
Arg and NADPH->(NO out) ->citrulline + NADP+

1.Diffuses across membrane
2.short 1/2 life
3. ^reactive
Nitric oxide: uses
1.transient signal molecule
2.relaxes smooth muscle (vasodilator)
3.v platelet aggregation
4.Neuroxmitter
5.kills bacteria and cancer
Phys active amines: General reaction and jobs
AA->Amines

Decarboxylation (PLP)
Hydroxylation (BH4)

neuroxmitters
Serotonin: subs, prod, 2 interm reactions
Tryptophan->(BH4) ->->(PLP) ->Serotonin
PLP
decarboxylation

removes a CO2
BH4
hydroxylation

adds an -OH
Serotonin: jobs and clinical corr
low serotonin: depression

Paxil, Prozac->inihibit reuptake of Serotonin->prolong action
Histamine: subs, prod, type of rxn
Histidine->(PLP)->Histamine
GABA: subs, rxn and prod
Glutamate->(PLP)->GABA
GABA: characteristics
GABA and Glu have opposite effects

both come from Gln in astrocytes

Gln->Glu (inhib & excit.)
Glu->GABA (ONLY inhib)
GABA: clinical
epileptics: low GABA (can't inhibit, only excite)

Treatment: Valproic acid (^GABA)
Catechol: clinical
menstruation: Tyr given to v depression

Parkinson's: lack of dopamine

Fight/Flite:Epi->energy mobil.->^Bpressure
Heme: PBG deaminase other name
UroGen I synthase

bone marow isozyme different b/c of alternate xscrip/splicing
Heme: regulation
ALAS-1(liver and other): - by Hemin

ALAS-2(marrow):lack or presence of iron
Heme: Deficiency in any enzyme
Liver
vs.
Marrow
Liver:
any: accum of ALA (no hemin inhib)
Urogen III co/synth: porph. AND ALA!

Marrow:
only def. in early step->^ALA
late: porphyrins ONLY (not ALA)
Heme: ALA and porph accum
ALA->neuropsych problems
porph->photosensitivity
Heme: Porph treatment
inject hemin->lower ALA (in liver prob)

avoid sunlight

eat beta carotene (free radical scavenger)
Heme synth: Reverse order of enzymes
AS AD PD UC UD CO PO Fe
Diff between -gen and -rin
-gen: -C- (methylene)

-rin: -C= (methenyl)
Heme Defects: photosensitivity and not
Photo: Lead, PCT, HC, CEP

Not: AIP
Heme defects: Neuropsych problems
yes: lead, HC, AIP
Heme defects: location
Both: Lead, PCT

Liver: HC, AIP

Marrow: CEP
CEP char.
flourescent teeth
Heme metab.: unconjugated=?
bilirubin + albumin in blood

a complex! that goes to the liver
Heme Metab.: conjugated=?
bilirubin + 2 units of glucoronic acid

->more soluble

liver->bile
Heme metab.: what happens in intestine
conj bilirubin->UNCONJ

->urobilinogen

uro->sterco(feces)
uro->(blood)->kidney->urobilin(urine)
bilirubin conj with ?
glucoronic acid, in liver
Heme cleavage: inputs and outputs
inputs: O2 ande NADPH

outputs: NADP+ and H2O and Fe3+
Jaundice: baby with high conj. bilirubin
usually high UNCONJ b/c of glucxferase deficiency (liver not dev)

means impaired removal: bile duct problem, liver damage
Jaundice: causes
increased production

decreased excretion
Jaundice: ^ production reasons
^ hemolysis

^ bilirubin exceeds liver's capacity to conj

->unconj bilirubin
Jaundice: decreased excretion causes
hepatocellular or intrahepatic jaundice

obstuctive or posthepatic jaundice
Jaundice: Hepatocellular causes
liver damage

v bilirubin uptake and conj
^unconj bilirubin
why unconj bilirubin is bad
excess of albumin capacity-> binds lipids and impairs membrane function esp. in nervous system
Juandice: obstuctive or posthepatic causes
bile duct obstruction

v bilirubin excretion (bile flow problem)

^ levels of unconj bilirubin