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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
when addressing elbow, wrist, forearm or hand, you should always address:
1.
2.
3.
1. thoracic outlet
2. shoulder
3. clavicle
identify the labeled structures:
(see figure)
identify the labeled structures:
(see figure)
the axillary artery turns into ... artery that divides into ... and ... arteries
brachial
radial
ulnar
the ... artery turns into the brachial artery that then divides into radial and ulnar arteries
axillary
the ... artery feeds the deep palmar arch and the ... feeds the superficial palmar arch
radial
ulnar
the ... arch is feed by the radial artery and the ... arch is feed by the ulnar artery
deep palmar
superficial palmar
Posterior cord of the brachial plexus gives ... nerve
Medial and lateral cords give ... nerve
Medial cord gives ... nerve
radial
median
ulnar
identify the labeled structure
(see figure)
the elbow is 1 joint cavity with 2 distinct functions:
1.
2.
1. Flexion/extension
2. Supination/pronation
the 4 joints in the elbow cavity are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. Ulnohumeral Joint
2. Radiohumeral Joint
3. Radioulnar Joint
4. Interosseous membrane
what is the function of the radial collateral ligament:
stabilize radius to humerus
what is the function of the ulnar collateral ligament:
stabilize ulna to humerus
what is the function of the annular ligament of the radius:
stabilize over head of radius
what determines the carrying angle:
angle of trochlea
Any shift of (radius/ulna) will significantly impact elbow function
ulna
describe the carrying angle for a and b:
a. Cubitus Valgus
Ulna ABduction
increased carrying angle

b. Cubitus Varus
Ulna ADduction
decreased carrying angle
Head of radius rotates in the radioulnar joint allowing ... and ...

Radius will “radiate” around ulna during pronation
pronation
supination
Annular ligament important for stabilizing proximal ... joint and stabilizing radius on ...
radioulnar
humerus
Radial head moves ... in extension and ... with flexion of elbow
anteriorly
posteriorly
Radial head moves ... with pronation
posteriorly
Radial head moves ... with supination
anteriorly
when you fall on pronated arm, this is a mechanism for ... somatic dysfunction
posterior radial head
when you fall on supinated arm, this is a mechanism for ... somatic dysfunction
anterior radial head
what does this describe:

radial head slips under annular ligament
Nursemaid’s Elbow
how would you treat nursemaid's elbow:
Hold in pronation with extension, then SUPINATE and FLEX forearm
what is the function of the interosseous membrane:
1.
2.
1. bind radius and ulna together
2. Gives stability to distal radius
in the ... force is shifted from one bone to the other so that both bones are impacted
Interosseous Membrane
what kind of motion does the Interosseous Membrane have:
parallelogram
what is a Galeazzi fracture:
Radial shaft fracture with associated dislocation of distal radioulnar joint (dislocation is at wrist)
what is a Monteggia fracture:
Ulnar fracture with dislocation of proximal radioulnar joint (dislocation is at elbow)
what does the pneumonic MUGR stand for:
Monteggia- fractured Ulna
Galeazzi-fractured Radius
... nerve passes through pronator teres and it is composed of what spinal nerves:
median
C5-T1
Median Nerve Syndromes include:
1.
2.
3.
1. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
2. Pronator Syndrome
3. Anterior Interosseous Nerve Palsy
what are the symptoms of Pronator Syndrome:
Pain on volar surface of forearm after prolonged pronation
what are the symptoms of Anterior Interosseous Nerve Palsy
Weakness of index finger flexion
what are the symptoms of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
pain in hand especially the thumb and the index and middle fingers
the radial nerve is a continuation of ... of brachial plexus and innervates triceps then travels along spiral groove of humerus to innervate the ... of hand and give sensation to ...
posterior chord
extensors
dorsal surface of hand
Radial nerve dives into ... muscle through fascia before supplying ... extensors. compression is common at ... edge of supinator muscle. Posterior interosseous nerve, a branch of the ..., enters extensor compartment
supinator
wrist/finger
proximal
radial nerve
a humerus fracture can injure the ... nerve
radial
identify the labeled structures:
(see figure)
the ulnar nerve comes from what spinal nerves
C8-T1
what does the following describe:

Numbness and pain to medial hand
May progress to claw hand
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
what are the causes of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome:
1.
2.
3.
1. Frequent bending of elbow
2. Constant direct pressure on elbow
3. Direct blow to cubital tunnel
Compression by mm spasm
what type of epicondylitis is depicted in each figure?

1. medial epicondylitis is also known as ...

2. lateral epicondylitis is also known as ...
(see figure)
1. golfer's elbow
2. tennis elbow
what does this describe:

Inflammation of bursa overlying olecranon process
Caused by cumulative trauma, or isolated contusion
May be nontender chronic edema
Olecranon Bursitis
identify the labeled joint:
(see figure)
identify the type of movement (what kind of flexion and whether it is abduction or adduction)
and how many degrees of movement is there:
(see figure)
how many degrees of wrist flexion and wrist extension is typical:
flexion =
extension =
85
45
decreased carrying angle will limit wrist (AB/AD)-duction
AD-duction
hand pain can come from:
Arthritis, ganglion cysts, trigger finger, tenosynovitis, carpal tunnel sd, contractures of fascia, mallet finger

the treatment is to address ... and ... integrity, ... alignment
bony
ligamentous
fascial
Increased carrying angle (AB-ducted ulna) will limit wrist (AB/AD)-duction
AB-duction
when treating hand pain, you should also consider:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. neck
2. shoulder
3. elbow
4. wrist