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132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Telecommunication Systems
Enable the transmission of data over public/private networks
Network
A communications, data exchange, and resource-sharing system created by linking 2 or more computers and establishing standards (protocols) so that they can work together
Local Area Network
Small
Generally connects 1 building/group of buildings
(Office building/school/home)
Metropolitan Area Network
Larger than LAN, smaller than WAN
(College/business)
Wide Area Network
Large
(Internet)
Peer-to-Peer Network
Any network w/o a central file server and in which all computers in the network have access to public files located on all other workstations
Client
A computer that is designed to request info from a server
Server
A computer that is dedicated to providing info in response to external requests
Client/server Network
Server does back-end processing
Client does front-end processing
Network Operating System (NOS)
Operating system that runs a network
Packet-switching
Occurs when the sending computer divides a message into a number of efficiently sized units (packets)
Each packet contains the address of the destination computer
Router
Intercepts packets
Connecting device that examines each packet of data it receives and then decides which way to send it onward toward its destination
Network Topology
Refers to the geometric arrangement of the actual physical organization of the computers in a network
Protocol
Standard that specifies the format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission
Interoperability
The capability of 2 or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they may be made by different manufacturers
Bus
The central cable that connects all the devices
(Small networks)
Star
All devices connected to a central device (hub)
*All data must pass through the hub
Ring
All devices connected to each other in the shape of a closed loop
(Each device connected to 2 other devices)
Hybrid
Groups of star workstations connected to a linear bus backbone
(Bus+Star)
Wireless
Transmits signals between computer and a server within an acceptable transmission range
Ethernet
Physical and data layer technology for LAN networking
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Provide the technical foundation for the public Internet as well as for large numbers of private networks
Network Transmission Media
The various types of media used to carry the signal between computers
Wire Media
Transmission material manufactured so that signals will be confined to a narrow path and will behave predictably
(Twisted-pair wiring, Coaxial cable, Fiber optic)
Wireless Media
Natural parts of the earth's environment that can be used as physical paths to carry electrical signals
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A way to use the public telecommunication infrastructure to provide secure access to an organization's network
Valued-Added Network (VAN)
Private network, provided by a third party, for exchanging info through a high capacity connection
Backbone
Collection of high-speed telecommunications lines that are connected by high-speed computers
Bandwidth
The capacity/speed of data transfer
Bits
The amount of info (digital 1s and 0s) the line is capable of carrying per unit of time
Switch
Computers that move "traffic" (info) along the backbone lines
Routers
Switches that decide on which direction to pass traffic
Point of Presence (POP)
A point of access to the network
Consists of a switch that knows how to route traffic to the end users connected directly to it
Firewall
Combination of specialized hardware and software that provides protection from users and requests outside the LAN
World Wide Web
Collection of computers on the Internet that support a certain hypertext function
Users
Companies that use the Internet intensely in the core of their business
Users
E-Commerce
Companies that sell goods over the Internet
Users
Content Aggregators
Companies that gather content from multiple sources and display that content on their sites
Users
Market Makers
Companies that act as intermediaries and run electronic markets
Users
Brokers/Agents
Act as intermediaries by facilitating transactions for a particular party
Users
Service Providers
Furnish all other Internet-based services
Backbone Operators
Companies that run the backbone
Control large bandwidth lines and are able to handle a large volume of digital traffic
ISPs/OSPs
Provide the hardware and software that enable individuals to gain access to the Web
Last Mile
Connection to consumer
Physical connection between the POP and the enduser
Supply Chain Management
Involves the management of info flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
Supply Chain Management
1. Supply Chain Strategy
Strategy for managing all the resources required to meet customer demand for all products and services
Supply Chain Management
2. Supply Chain Partners
The partners chosen to deliver finished products, raw materials, and services including pricing, delivery, and payment processes along with partner relationship monitoring metrics
Supply Chain Management
3. Supply Chain Operation
The schedule for production activities including testing, packaging, and preparation for delivery. Measurements for this component include productivity and quality
Supply Chain Management
4. Supply Chain Logistics
The product delivery processes and elements including orders, warehouses, carriers, defective product returns, and invoicing
Customer Relationship Management
Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability
Business Process
Standardized set of activities that accomplish a specific task, such as processing a customer's order
Business Process Reengineering
The analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises
Enterprise Resource Planning
Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system
Competitive Advantage
A product/service that an organization's customers place a greater value on than similar offerings from a competitor
First-Mover Advantage
Occurs when an organization can significantly impact its market share by being first to market w/ a competitive advantage
Environmental Scanning
The acquisition and analysis of events and trends in the environment external to an organization
5 Forces Model
Helps determine the relative attractiveness of an industry
Includes following 5 forces:
1. Buyer power
2. Supplier power
3. Threat of substitute products/services
4. Threat of new entrants
5. Rivalry among existing competitors
Buyer Power
High when buyers have many choices of whom to buy from
Low when buyers have few choices of whom to buy from
Loyalty Program
Awards customers based on the amount of business they do w/ a particular organization
Supplier Power
High when buyers have few choices of whom to buy from
Low when buyers have many choices of whom to buy from
Supply Chain
Consists of all parties involved (directly/indirectly) in the procurement of a product/raw material
Business-to-Business Marketplace
Internet-based service that brings together many buyers and sellers
Private Exchange
A Business-to-Business Marketplace in which a single buyer posts its needs and then opens the bidding to any supplier who would care to bid
Reverse Auction
An auction format in which increasingly lower bids are solicited from organizations willing to supply the desired product/service at an increasingly lower price
Threat of Substitute Products/Services
High when there are many alternatives to a product/service
Low when there are few to choose
Switching Costs
Costs that can make customers reluctant to switch to another product or service
Threat of New Entrants
High when it is easy for new competitors to enter a market
Low when there are significant entry barriers to entering a market
Entry Barrier
Product/service feature that customers have come to expect from organizations in a particular industry and must be offered by an entering organization to compete and survive
Rivalry Among Existing Competitors
High when competition is fierce
Low when competition is more complacent
Business Process
A standardized set of activities that accomplish a specific task, such as processing a customer's order
Value Chain
Views an organization as a series of processes, each of which adds value to the product/service for each customer
Supply Chain Management
Involves the management of info flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
Supply Chain Management
1. Supply Chain Strategy
The strategy for managing all the resources required to meet customer demand for all products and services
Supply Chain Management
2. Supply Chain Partners
Partners chosen to deliver finished products, raw materials, and services including pricing, delivery, and payment processes
Supply Chain Management
3. Supply Chain Operation
Schedule for production activities including testing, packaging, and preparation for delivery
Supply Chain Management
4. Supply Chain Logistics
Product delivery processes and elements including orders, warehouses, carriers, defective product returns, and invoicing
Model
Simplified representation/abstraction of reality
Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)
The capturing of transaction and event information using technology to:
Process info according to defined business rules
Store the info
Update existing info to reflect the new info
Transaction Processing System (TPS)
The basic business system that serves the operational level in an organization
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
The manipulation of info to create business intelligence in support of strategic decision making
Decision Support System (DSS)
Models info to support managers and business professionals during the decision-making process
Sensitivity Analysis
The study of the impact that changes in one part of the model have on other parts of the model
What-if Analysis
Checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution
Goal-Seeking Analysis
Finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal such as a desired level of output
Executive Information System (EIS)
Specialized DSS that supports senior level executives within the organization
Consolidation
Involves the aggregation of info and features simple roll-ups to complex groupings of interrelated info
Drill-down
Enables users to get details, and details of details, of info
Slice-and-Dice
The ability to look at info from different perspectives
Digital Dashboards
Integrate info from multiple components and tailor the info to individual preferences
Market Pulse
Examples include daily sales numbers, market share, and subscriber turnover
Customer Service
Examples include problems resolved on the first call, call center wait times, and on-time repair calls
Cost Driver
Examples include number of repair trucks in the field, repair jobs completed per day, and call center productivity
Intelligent Systems
Various commercial applications of artificial intelligence
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Simulates human intelligence such as the ability to reason and learn
Expert Systems
Computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning process of experts in solving difficult problems
Neural Network
(Artificial Neural Network)
A category of AI that attempts to emulate the way the human brain works
Fuzzy Logic
A mathematical method of handling imprecise/subjective info
Genetic Algorithm
Artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem
Intelligent Agent
A special-purpose knowledge-based info system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users
Shopping Bot
Software that will search several retailer Web sites and provide a comparison of each retailer's offerings including price and availability
Cluster Analysis
A technique used to divide an info set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible
Association Detection
Reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the info
Market Basket Analysis
Analyzes such items as websites and checkout scanner info to detect customers' buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customers' choices of products and services
Forecasts
Predictions made on the basis of time-series info
Time-series Info
Time-stamped info collected at a particular frequency
Core Competency
An organization's key strength, a business function that it does better than any of its competitors
Core Competency Strategy
One in which an organization chooses to focus specifically on what it does best and forms partnerships and alliances w/ other specialist organizations to handle nonstrategic business processes
Information Partnership
Occurs when 2 or more organizations cooperate by integrating their IT systems
Collaboration System
An IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of info
Unstructured Collaboration
(Information Collaboration)
Includes document echange, shared whiteboards, discussion forums, and email
Structured Collaboration
(Process Collaboration)
Involves shared participation in business processes, such as workflow, in which knowledge is hard-coded as rules
Knowledge Management
Involves capturing, classifying, evaluating, retrieving, and sharing info assets in a way that provides context for effective decisions and actions
Knowledge Management System
Supports the capturing, organization, and dissemination of knowledge throughout an organization
Explicit Knowledge
Consists of anything that can be documented, archived, and codified, often w/ the help of IT
Tacit Knowledge
The knowledge contained in people's heads
Shadowing
Less experienced staff observe more experienced staff to learn how their more experienced counterparts approach their work
Joint Problem Solving
Having a novice and expert work together on a project
Work hand in hand on a task to bring the expert's approach to life
Social Networking Analysis
A process of mapping a group's contracts (whether personal/professional) to identify who knows whom and who works with whom
Content Management System
Provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of info in a collaborative environment
Workflow
Defines all the steps/business rules, from beginning to end, required for a business process
Workflow Management Systems
Facilitate the automation and management of business processes and control the movement of work through the business process
Messaging-based Workflow Systems
Send work assignments through an email system
Database-based Workflow Systems
Store documents in a central location and automatically ask the team members to access the document when it's their turn to edit the document
Groupware
Software that supports team interaction and dynamics including calendaring, scheduling, and videoconferencing
Digital Darwinism
Implies that organizations which can't adapt to the new demands placed on them for surviving in the info age are doomed to extinction
Disruptive Technology
A new way of doing things that initially doesn't meet the needs of existing customers
Sustaining Technology
Produces an improved product customers are eager to buy
Internet
Global public network of computer networks that pass info from one to another using common computer protocols
Protocols
The standards that specify th format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission
World Wide Web
Global hypertext system that uses the Internet as its transport mechanism
Hypertext Transport Protocol
The Internet standard that supports the change of info on the WWW
Digital Divide
When those w/ access to technology have great advantages over those w/o access to technology