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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phospholipids are major components of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
cell membranes
lipoproteins
bile
lung surfactant
phospholipids serve as precursors to ...
eicosanoids
... serves as backbone to which fatty acids and other constituents attach
glycerol
initial steps of phospholipid synthesis are similar to synthesis of triglycerides
... reacts with ... to form ...
glycerol 3-phosphate
fatty acyl CoA
phosphatidic acid
how many mechanisms are there to add the head group to carbon 3 of glycerol?
2
In the first mechanism used to add a head group ... is cleaved by a phosphatase to form ... that then reacts with an activated head group of either choline, ethanolamine, or serine
phosphatidic acid
diacylglycerol (DAG)
In the second mechanism used to add a head group ... reacts with ... to form CDP-diacylglycerol.
phosphatidic acid
CTP (cytidine 5’-triphosphate
phosphotidylcholine is also known as ...
lecithin
lecithin is needed by every cell in the body and is a key building block of cell membranes important component of the ... in the large intestines
mucus layer
Patients suffering from ulcerative colitis have a disturbed mucosal barrier and the mucus layers in their large intestines exhibit lower levels of ... than that of healthy people.
phosphatidylcholine
what are the names of the 2 enzymes that arrange phospholipids in membranes?
scramblase and flippase
... components of cell membranes major constituent of myelin sheaths intercellular communication, antigenic determinants (ABO blood type), and viral and bacterial receptors
sphingolipids
synthesis of sphingolipids begins with formation of ... from ... and ...
ceramide
serine
palmityl CoA
sphingomyelin is very important where?
in the nervous system
levels of ... and ... in amniotic fluid used to assess fetal lung development
lecithin (phosphatidylcholine)
spingomyelin
... is the major lipid in lung surfactant
lecithin
levels of lecithin increase dramatically at ... weeks gestation as the fetal lungs reach maturity and begin producing sufficient amounts of surfactant
35
infants born prior to 35 weeks gestation may suffer from ...
RDS (respiratory distress syndrome)
the synthesis of cholesterol occurs primarily in the:
a.
b.
c.
d.
liver
adrenal glands
ovaries
testes
Approximately ... of the body’s cholesterol is synthesized de novo from acetyl CoA (which means only 20% comes directly from the diet).
80%
in the synthesis of cholesterol all ... carbons are contributed by acetyl CoA
27
in the synthesis of cholesterol there are how many stages?
4
cholesterol synthesis requires significant reducing power from ...
NADPH
stage 1 in the synthesis of cholesterol involves the synthesis of ... from ...
mevalonate
acetyl CoA
which of the 4 steps in cholesterol synthesis is the rate limiting step and the point of regulation?
step 1
stage 2 in cholesterol synthesis involves the conversion of ... to 2 ...
mevalonate
activated isoprenes
stage 3 in cholesterol synthesis is the ... of six activated 5-carbon ... to form the 30-carbon ...
condensation
isoprenes
squalene
stage 3 in cholesterol synthesis is the conversion of ... to the 4-ringed ...
squalene
steroid nucleus