Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/55

Click to flip

55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lipids are generally (hydrophobic/hydrophilic), soluble in ... and largely insoluble in ...
hydrophobic
organic solvents
water
name 7 functions of lipids:
membranes
energy reserves cushion vital organs
insulation
vitamins
hormones
chemical messengers
how much fat is in the average american diet?
38%
what pathological conditions are related to lipids:
Obesity
Cardiovascular disease
Atherosclerosis
Diabetes
Cancer
Metabolic syndromes
Lipid Storage Diseases
alzheimer's disease
what are the 5 classes of lipids?
Triglycerides
Phospholipids
Sphingolipids (spingophospholipids and glycolipids)
Eicosanoids
Cholesterol
what are the building blocks of lipids?
fatty acids
Chemically, fatty acids can be described as long-chain ... acids
monocarboxylic
length of the fatty acid chain usually ranges from ... to ...
12
24
why do fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms?
all derived from acetyl CoA precursor, the 2-carbon building block
a. alpha
b. omega
identify the labeled carbons:
a.
b.
In ... nomenclature fatty acids have an “-oic acid” suffix.
IUPAC
In common nomenclature, the suffix is usually ...
“-ic”
Fatty acids can also be abbreviated using the number of carbons in the fatty acid chain, followed by a colon and the number of ... present, while ... or ... indicate positions of double bonds
unsaturated bonds or double
Δ
ω
identify the type of nomenclature of the following fatty acid:
octadecanoic acid = stearic acid = C18:0
systemic name = common name = symbol
fatty acids without any double bonds are said to be ...
saturated
animal fats are solid because the saturated fatty acid molecules are ...
packed together very tightly
... fatty acids have ... bonds that form "kinks" or bends that cause the fatty acid molecules to pack loosely
unsaturated
double
mono- and polyunsaturated fats are in the form of a ...
liquid
a. saturated
b. unsaturated
what kind of fatty acid is a. and what kind of fatty acid is b.
Unsaturated fatty acids can occur either in cis or trans geometric isomers. In naturally occurring fatty acids, the double bonds are in the ...-configuration. ...-fats are found in fried and processed foods and contribute to coronary artery disease and can be carcinogenic.
cis
trans
Free fatty acids are an important fuel source and are preferred by ... and ... to glucose).
heart
skeletal muscle
triglyceride structure: glycerol is esterified with ...
three fatty acids
triglyceride
identify this molecule:
main function of triglycerides is ...
energy storage
any extra calories consumed will be stored as ...
triglycerides
glycerol
identify this molecule:
Triglyceride Levels (mg/dL):
Normal: < ...
Borderline High: ...
High: ...
Very High: ...
150
150-199
200-499
500 or above
High triglyceride levels may be due to …
Cirrhosis, alcoholism
Diet low in protein, high in carbohydrates
Hypothyroidism
Pancreatitis
Poorly controlled diabetes
Nephrotic syndrome
Familial hyperlipoproteinemia
in ... the carboxyl group of each fatty acid is esterified to the hydroxyl groups on carbon-1 and carbon-2 of the glycerol molecule. The phosphate group is attached to carbon-3 by an ester link.
phospholipids
how many fatty acids are attached to a phospholipid?
2
Phospholipids are ... molecules, meaning they have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties.
amphipathic
phospholipid
identify this molecule:
One of the primary functions of phospholipids is to serve as the main constituent of ...
cell membranes
in phospholipids, one of the fatty acids replaced with a phosphoric acid esterified to a functional group:
c...
e...
s...
g...
i...
choline
ethanolamine
serine
glycerol
inositol
... are fats that resemble phoshatidylcholine, except the fatty acid at C1 of glycerol contains either an O-alkyl (-O-CH2-) or O-alkenyl ether (-O-CH=CH-) species.
plasmalogens
... are highly enriched in neuronal membranes and may act as endogenous antioxidants within cells
plasmalogens
a. glycerol
b. choline
plasmalogen
identify the part of the molecule labeled:
a.
b.
and identify the type of fatty acid it is ..
An example of a plasmalogen is ... which is an important mediator of hypersensitivity and inflammation.
platelet activating factor (PAF)
in sphingolipids, the backbone is ... derived from ... rather than glycerol
sphingosine
serine
examples of sphingolipids include:
a.
b.
c.
a. ceramides
b. sphingomyelin
b. glycolipids
sphingosine
identify this molecule:
what type of lipid helps to form the myelin sheath surrounding axons and functions in cell recognition and cell signaling.
sphingolipids
what type of lipid helps to form a mechanically stable and chemically resistant barrier within plasma membranes?
sphingolipids
... are oxygenated derivatives of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids
eicosanoids
what enzymes are used to form eicosanoids?
cyclooxygenase (COX) lipoxygenase
ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are named for where there ... bond occurs.
double
cyclooxygenase (COX) is blocked by ...
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
the 4 main groups of eicosanoids are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. leukotrienes
2. prostaglandins
3. prostacyclins
4. thromboxanes
... are major players in inflammatory response
eicosanoids
cholesterol
identify this molecule:
... is a cell membrane component and precursor to steroid hormones and ...
cholesterol
vitamin D
central core consisting of ... fused rings is shared by all steroids
four
liver synthesizes ... grams of cholesterol a day (... of blood cholesterol)

... of blood cholesterol comes from dietary sources (meat and dairy)
2
85%
15%
... (good cholesterol) carry ... (bad cholesterol) away from arteries
HDLs
LDLs
a. sphingolipid
b. plasmalogen
c. triglyceride
d. sphingolipid (glycolipid)
e. phospholipid
identify the types of lipids labeled:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.