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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An attitude is:
an evaluational reaction
ABC's of Attitude
i. Affect: Emotions
ii. Behavior: Actions
iii. Cognition: thoughts
Genetic Component to Some Attitudes
i. Combination of factors that contribute to preferences that go along with activities
ii. We think of attitudes almost entirely in a nurture way, but there is a nature side as well
Classical Conditioning
i. Learning through association (Pavlov's dogs)
ii. Attitudes are paired with positive/negative emotions
Operant Conditioning
i. Based on rewards and punishment learning
ii. Attitudes shaped by outcomes
1) Positive outcomes lead to more positive attitudes, etc.
Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?
a. Early research showed little relation between attitude and actions
i. Inconsistency between affective & cognitive components to our attitudes
1) How we feel about something doesn't always match what we think
a) e.g., dieter's attitude toward unhealthy foods
2) Inability to introspect accurately about the source of our attitudes
a) Thinking about reasons can lead to confusion over true source of attitudes
i) Romantic relationships - bad place to think about reasons; don't overthink
3) Attitudes cannot predict behavior all the time
How are attitudes measured?
i. Aggregation Principle
1) Attitudes will predict behavior better when behaviors are averaged across many situations
a) e.g., religious attitudes & actual church attendance
b) Predicting who will attend by measuring only one instance is innaccurate; measuring who goes to church over a year is a better measurement
ii. Compatibility Principle
1) Attitudes predict behavior better when measures match the specificity of the behavior
a) e.g., attitudes toward physical health vs. (more specific) attitudes toward jogging on sundays
Aggregation Principle
Attitudes better predict behavior when averaged across many situations
Compatibility Principle
Attitudes predict behavior better when measures match the specificity of the behavior, e.g. asking someone their opinion about exercise, versus their opinions about jogging on sundays
Theory of Planned Behavior
i. There are multiple determinants of behavior
ii. Attitudes are only one determining factor of behavior!
iii. Subjective Norms - what would others who are important to us do in this situation?
1) These types of norms influence our behavior independent of our attitudes
2) Peer pressure, for example
iv. Perceived Control
1) Do we have the ability to act?
a) May strongly support recycling, but your town has no recycling centers
v. These three factors influence intentions to act out behavior
1) Measuring these three factors help influence behavior
a) How do you feel about condom use?
b) How do you think your friends feel about it?
c) How easily can you access them?
vi. All these three things influence intentions, which influence Behavior
Subjective Norms
what would others who are important to us do in this situation?
1) These types of norms influence our behavior independent of our attitudes
2) Peer pressure, for example
Perceived Control
1) Do we have the ability to act?
a) May strongly support recycling, but your town has no recycling centers
3 Factors Influence Actual Intentions to Carry Out Behavior
1) Measuring these three factors help influence behavior
a) How do you feel about condom use?
b) How do you think your friends feel about it?
c) How easily can you access them?
vi. All these three things influence intentions, which influence Behavior
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
i. People have a drive to maintain consistency
ii. When inconsistency arises, we feel an aversive state of dissonance
1) We feel uncomfortable, and we wish to change and show consistency
How People Attempt to Reduce Dissonance
a) Change one element to create consonance
i) Either stop smoking or change the belief about smoking, deny it
b) Minimize importance of one element
i) "everything causes cancer"
ii) "I only smoke a little bit, not a big deal"
c) Add new information
i) "my grandfather smoked 2 packs a day and lived until 100"
ii) "I will gain weight if I stop smoking"
Insufficient Justification
1) When inconsistent behavior is not adequately explained by external factors
a) If you go to s a party and smoke, you feel guilty next day
b) If you go to a party and someone gives you $100 to smoke, not feel guilty
2) Leon Festinger had subjects turn pegs and spools for 1 hour
a) Offered $1 or $20 to lie to the next set of subjects, saying it was fun
b) Then measured the attitudes of the liars
i) People who lied and got $20 and said they enjoyed the task less than those who got $1
ii) The $1 participants enjoyed the task more, because they had to change their attitudes in order to justify lying to people to get a dollar
3) Dissonance from potentially wasted effort
a) Effort justification reduces dissonance
Because of Cognitive Dissonance, what happens to group members when the prophecy of an apocalyptic event fails?
Group members beliefs become stronger
More severe initiation into group = _____ feelings toward that group
stronger
Dissonance from Difficult Decisions
1) Making bad/wrong choices would be inconsistent
2) We want to reduce the dissonance by increasing the perceived difference between the choices after we have already made the decision
a) "I am so glad I chose the mac"
i) Chosen items become more valuable
ii) Non-chosen items becomes less valuable
Necessary Conditions for Dissonance
Free Choice (we are personally responsible for our decision), Negative Consequences (consequences are foreseeable, could lead to bad results), Physiological Feelings associated with decision (body reactions to decision)
Alternatives to Cognitive Dissonance
Self Perception Theory, Over-Justification Effect, Self-Affirmation Effect, Rationalization, Terror Management Theory
Self Perception Theory
1) We infer attitudes from our own behavior
a) Similar to inferring other peoples' attitudes from their behavior
b) No conflict or arousal, no "change" in attitude
c) I told someone that activity was fun even thougj iwasn't, I must have anjoyed that activity
d) Especially for weak and/or new attitudes
Over Justification Effect
1) The tendency to devalue behaviors performed for explicit reward
a) Something becomes less enjoyable if we have to do it, even if they were initially enjoyable
b) Our attitudes toward coerced behaviors become negative
i) Even if they once were postive
ii) Children rewarded for playing math games - they liked the games less after the rewards were drawn
iii) Self perception of motivation
Self-Affirmation Effect
1) Dissonance is a threat to self-integrity
a) We like to think of ourselves as good people who make good decisions, no inconsistencies
b) We can restore our self-integrity by affirming ourselves in unrelated domains
i) Maybe I smoke, but at least I recycle and have good relationships
ii) Emphasizing positive skills, traits, qualities
Rationalization/System Justification Theory
1) System justification theory
a) People are motivated to see the existing social and political status quo as fair, just, and desirable
b) …and inevitable! We can't change the system
c) Vote for things that don't help and go against our own interest because it is fair
d) Members of disadvantaged groups may be even more likely to support status quo
i) Supporting authorities
ii) Because they have more to justify and rationalize
Utilitarianism
a) Attitudes provide useful information about rewards, threats, and punishments
b) Food, fears, fun - tell us some positive or negative outcome (reward/punishment)
Ego Defense
a) Atititudes protect us from anxiety
i) Shared cultural worldviews and terror management
ii) Conservatism, belief in a just world (karma)
Expression of Values
a) Attitudes allows us to share core beliefs with others
i) Especially reference groups (whose opinions matter to us)
ii) We want to let people know our beliefs, and persuade them