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60 Cards in this Set

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What are the general categories of HL?
Hard of Hearing
deaf/Deaf
Deafened
Define Hard of Hearing (HOH)
mild --> severe hearing loss
Define deaf
audiologically deaf
-bilateral/profound HL
-even w/ hearing aids, speech is not perceived by auditory channel alon
Define Deaf
culturally deaf
-identify with deaf culture
-does not depend upon degree of HL
Define deafened
HL that occurs after completion of education (late teens and beyond)
What are the classifications of HL by time of onset and course?
congenital, acquired
sudden, progressive
Besides deaf/Deaf, HOH, deafened, congenital/acquired and sudden/progressive, what are some other classification of HL?
exogenous vs endogenous
site of lesion/disorder
type (conductive, sensory-neural, mixed)
What are the direct and indirect results of growing up with a congenital/early onset HL?
Direct- reduced access to speech signal
Indirect- speech delays (grammar, syntax, speech, vocab)
What are the social/academic consequences of growing up with a congenital/early onset HL?
Consequences in relation to:
Academics (reading, comprehension)
Social/emotional
Vocational
Family interaction
Describe the results of the 1995 Cappelli et al. "Self Perception Profile for Children" study.
Children with HL perceived themselves as less socially accepted than did their peers with normal hearing
23 HOH kids ages 6-12 compared to age-matched cohort of 23 NH kids.
Describe kids w/ HL self concept study done by Bess et al. (1998)
Asked 1200 kids w/ mild HL "During the past month, how often have you felt badly about yourself?"
Result: kids w/ mild HL have significantly higher rate of low self esteem than kids w/ NH.
Describe the Blood, Blood, & Danhauser (1977) study...
On a rating scale of intelligence, personality, attractiveness and capability, when showed pictures of people wearing visible hearing aids respondents scored them lower in nearly every category
THE HEARING AID EFFECT
What is "The Hearing Aid Effect?"
results of an old 1977 study showing that people judge those with HL as less intelligent, attractive, capable or personable.
Do preschoolers engage in the Hearing Aid Effect?
Much less so.
This is one rationale for early inclusion, so that rapport can be developed before such notions come to be.
T/F
Professionals should acknowledge differences and help children learn to cope with difficult self-image concepts
True
(learning card!)
T/F
Children w/ HL are often more accurate in identifying others' emotional states than children without HL.
False
How are emotional development and language acquisition tied in a person with HL?
Hearing loss--> lg. deficits (esp affective vocab)
Lg deficits --> limited experience in self expression
Limited experience in self-expression --> delay in awareness of their own or others emotions.
What are the stages of grief that a parent of a child w. HL may go through?
Shock
Denial
Depression
Acceptance
What percentage of kids w. HL are born to hearing parents?
90%
T/F
Parents should be expected to move through the cycles of grief within one year from diagnosis.
False.
There is no set time.
Name some transitions that could trigger the grieving process in parents of children w. HL...
Change in:
hearing status, amplification, educational placement, communication modality
Starting school
Adolescence
Starting work
Dating
Professionals can negatively perceive parents of kids w. HL as...
blocking their efforts to help
being foolish or stubborn
How can professionals support parents who are showing signs of grieving?
Be sympathetic
Don't overwhelm them w. info or jargon
Provide info in unbiased manner
LISTEN
Support decisions without judgement
Professionals can add to anxiety by emphasizing issues that are not parental priorities immediately after Dx
What are some ways that the parent/child interaction is affected?
Mother-child interaction is more rigid
Moms use more directive lg.
Parents may stop talking to their child =(
Without intervention, the above can impact parent-child attachment
Why do kids w. HL have difficulty with social competence?
Fewer opportunities to access social language.
Limited communication skills = poor social competence
How does poor/limited com. skills result in poor social competence?
Limits ability:
to think independently
for self control
to understand/verbalize feelings, motivations, needs of self/others
to be flexible and tolerate frustration
to rely on/be relied upon by others
to maintain healthy relationships
T/F
50% of kids w. HL were concerned about peers and social relationships vs. 12% of NH kids
True.
Wouldn't mention wearing hearing aids.
Didn't want to be teased by peers
Many reported spending most of their time alone
List six difficulties in social development for preschool children
Delayed due to prolonged dependence & low self-confidence
Difficulty developing internal locus of control
Experiences isolation
More behavioral adjustment problems than NH peers
Subject to fewer demands & more parental intervention when frustrated
Less opportunity to use coping skills
What can parents do to help their kids w. HL in their social development?
Assign responsibilities to increase self-confidence.
Realistically accept child's strengths and weaknesses.
A hearing impaired kid with no language delays is more apt to interact with:
a. other hearing impaired kids that have language delays
b. typically developing peers
c. any children. They show no preference.
b. A hearing impaired child w. age appropriate language is more likely to interact with typically developing peers than with hearing impaired children with language delays.
Mainstreaming Situation:
Single child w. HL in school
Social difficulty this creates: ?
No older HI mentors
No HI peers to share experiences with
NH kids are unfamiliar with HL
Mainstreaming Situation:
Use of classroom amplification
Social difficulty this creates: ?
Singles the child out as different
Can be a source of derision
If used incorrectly, can interfere w. communication
Mainstreaming Situation:
Being taken out of class for services
Social difficulty this creates: ?
singles child out as different
may miss social opportunities
Mainstreaming situation:
Communication breakdown in academic/social situations
Social difficulty this creates: ?
Source of derision
NH children may stop trying
HI children may stop trying
Mainstreaming situation:
Difficult listening conditions
Social difficulty this creates: ?
may lead to com. breakdown
may cause kid to remove self from groups
Self-contained situation:
One of many kids with HL in school
Social difficulty this creates: ?
No contact w. typical speech/language models
No need to make an effort to establish social skills
Self-contained situation:
Being education in protected environment.
Social difficulty this creates: ?
No contact w. peers who are unlike themselves
No contact w. adults who are not understanding of their problems.
No preparation for the "hearing world"
What are some social/emotional characteristics of school age children with HL?
feel like "outsiders"
require teacher mediation in classroom interactions
shy, withdrawn, poorly motivated, dependent
aggressive and uncooperative
behave immaturely
strong desire to please
T/F
Teenagers with hearing loss are unique in experiencing peer pressure, emotional turbulence, self-identity issues, self-expression concerns, mood swings and adjustments to physiologic changes.
False, silly.
ALL teenagers experience that crap.
Whew! So glad I don't have to re-live that nightmare!!
What are the unique aspects facing teens w. HL?
Less emotionally bonded to friends
Friendships higher in aggression
Preferred spending time w. other teens w. HL
Many reject amplification & struggle w. acceptance of HL
HI girls act out physically instead of verbally as is the norm
What is an important social/interpersonal skill that will benefit a teen w. HL as they transition out of highschool?
a. speechreading
b. turn taking
c. self-advocacy
c. self advocacy
How many school age kids w. HL are from minority cultures?
a. just over 20%
b. just over 30%
c. just over 40%
b. just over 30%
What factors affect management of a child w. HL from a culturally diverse background?
How family copes w. HL & immersion
-some view it as medical issue
-some view it from religious perspective
-adherence to management plan may be culturally bound
-families seek id, eval and management services based on cultural views
A commonly cited culturally difference affecting treatment is
a. differences in perspectives on time
b. different priorities
c. denial of need
d. both a. and b.
d. both a. and b.
differences in perspectives on time
and
differences in priorities (other factors may supersede tx priority)
How is the life of a sibling of a child w. HL affected due to the HL?
NH sib gets less attention from family
family discussions center on HL sib
parents more lenient w. HL sib
NH sib assigned tasks to help HL sib
success of NH sib expected therefore not praised as highly as HL sib
NH sib = caretaker role
NH sib uncomfortable providing bridge to social world for HL sib
Why are children w. disabilities considered vulnerable to abuse?
Families w. high stress = high incidence of child abuse
Lg. deficits can cause difficulty in understanding what is happening during sexual encounters
May be unable to understand innuendo
May be overly eager to please others
May find it difficult to communication concerns about a situation
Name 5 ways that an adult can become deafened...
medication
NIHL
hereditary HL
TBI
surgery
What are the direct/indirect consequences of Acquired/late onset HL?
Direct - reduced access to the acoustic cues of speech
Indirect - difficulty w. communicative exchange
Which leads to:
social/emotional consequences
vocational deficits
family interaction deficits
On average, how long is the time span between an adult noticing a HL and consulting an audiologist?
a. 7 weeks
b. 7 months
c. 7 years
7 years
What are some avoidance/coping mechanisms used by adults in denial of an undiagnosed HL?
"Not my fault" aka "He talks like he has marbles in his mouth!"
develop avoidance techniques (stop answering the phone)
pretend they heard what was said
deny difficulty
What percentage of adults who need hearing aids actually get them?
a. 20%
b. 40%
c. 60%
20%
The other 80% state cost and cosmetics as their reasons for not getting them
T/F
Insurance covers the cost of hearing aids.
False
The $600-$5000 expense is not typically covered
Describe the Doggett, Stein and Gans study of self concept in adults with HL
the Granny study =)
2 age matched groups of women, one group fitted w. hearing aids.
Subjects interacted w. one another and rated each other on attractiveness, friendliness, confidence and intelligence.
Group w. hearing aids displayed less of the above because of projected self image.
give an example of "Conversational Exclusion"
HI adult: What did you say?
NH adult: nothing, it's not important.
What are the emotional results of Conversational Exclusion for the adult w. HL?
frustration
isolation
resentment
paranoia
spouse/family/friends become impatient w. repeating and clarifying which leads to MORE isolation
Which one of these is not a psychoemotional response to acquired HL in an adult?
a. anger
b. anxiety
c. elation
d. stress
e. resentment
f. depression
g. grief
c. elation
Family members are enlisted to help the deafened adult by ________, ________, ________, etc.
talking on the phone
talking or answering "for" the person
translating for them
explaining what was missed
covering for them when com. was missed.
T/F
Spouses often report greater problems after the hearing aid fitting than before.
False
Greater problems before, fewer problems after.
What are some common social ramifications for the unaided adult with HL?
Opt out of activities (too stressful)
Misunderstandings common
Blame communication partner
Avoidance techniques develop
Make excuses about losing interest in activities
Withdrawal leads to depression
Failure to make connection between all the above and HL
Which one of these does HL not adversely affect?
a. Ability to stay in touch with our environment
b. Ability to receive info about objects/events
c. Ability to operate a motor vehicle
d. Ability to effectively communicate and interact
c. ability to operate a motor vehicle.
All others are considered adverse affects of adult onset/acquired HL