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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the five main factors that determine how a wine will taste?
V.E.C.H.M
1) the grape Variety used;
2) the Environment in which it is grown (climate and weather, soil & slope);
3) the Care with which the grapes are grown & harvested;
4) How the wine is made; and
5) how wine is Matured.
Can factors that affect quality have a cost effect, and influence the final selling price of a bottle of wine?
Yes.
Name five environmental needs a vine has in order to produce a crop of ripe, healthy grapes.
1) CO2
2) sunlight
3) water
4) warmth
5) nutrients.
Describe flavor profile of wine from an under-ripened grape deprived of the heat it needed to full ripen ( say, Cabernet Sauvignon)
excessively sour, astringent, bitter and lacking in fruit flavor.
Describe flavor profile of a wine from an over-ripened grape that really would have preferred a moderate or cool climate (say, Pinot Noir or Sauvignon Blanc)
In the absence of refreshing fruit character and acidity, jammy, raisiny flavors can predominate, or the wine may taste bland.
In general, would wines with more alcohol, fuller body, more tannin and less acidity be from a hot climate or a cool climate?
Hot climate.
In general, would wines with less alcohol, lighter body, less tannin and more acidity be from a hot climate or a cool climate?
Cool climate.
What part of the grape berry contains bitter oils?
Seed
What part of the grape contains yeasts and bacteria?
Bloom
Which parts of the grape (two) contain tannins?
Stalk, skin
What part of the grape contains water, sugar, acids and flavorings?
Pulp
What part of the grape contains color and flavoring compounds?
Skin
Why would a winemaker remove bunches of perfectly good grapes from a vine before they had even fully ripened?
To ensure that the remaining bunches have a better chance of ripening fully and evenly. This gives you better grapes & better wine, but such activities increase production costs.
Why is sunlight crucial from a winemaker's perspective?
Sunlight allows the grape tp combine CO2 & water into sugar. THESE SUGARS FERMENT INTO ALCOHOL.
WIthout sunlight, there's no grape sugar; without grape sugars, there's no wine.
Imagine you have grapes with big crops, but the flavors and sugars are diluted, and the wine is lower than usual in alcohol, body and flavor. What's the likely culprit?
The grapes received too much water.
What kind of soils are best for growing grapes if you have high rainfall (as in much of Europe)?
Chalks or gravels which allow water to drain away quickly
If the weather is too cold or too hot, what can happen to sugar production?
It can slow, or even stop.
In what temperate zone do we find most of the world's vineyards?
Between 30 and 50 degrees from the equator.
Are dry, stony soils generally warmer or cooler than wet clay soils?
Warmer.
Do poorer quality soils generally result in better quality grapes?
Yes.
The most important part of the winemaking process is _________.
fermentation
When _______ feed on sugars in the grape juice, they produce alcohol, carbon dioxide and heat and change the flavors of grape juice into wine.
Yeasts.
The flesh of almost all wine grapes is _____.
White
Are grapes for white wines usually crushed to break the skins before they are pressed?
Yes.
Why are white wines usually fermented at low temperatures, typically 15-20C?
Lower fermentation temperatures help preserve fruit flavors.
Fermentation takes place at a higher temperature for red than for white wines-- usually _______degrees Celsius.
25-30
French oak tends to give ______&______flavors.
toast, nutty
American oak will impart_______&______
sweet coconut, vanilla
Maturation with oxygen takes place in ___________.
ak vats. New oak adds flavor-- old oak is neutral. In both cases, the wood is porous, allowing small amounts of oxygen to dissolve in the wine.
Maturation without oxygen takes place in (Name three ways).
bottles,
cement,
stainless steel vats.
In the vineyard, the cost of vineyard land, the degree to which the vineyard work is mechanized, the cost &availability of labor/equipment and yield size are all factors that affect the ________.
cost of producing a botle of wine.
Name two factors that can influence cost in the winery
Winery equipment and efficiency of equipment use;cost of barrels or other oak flavoring; and aging, which requires expensive storage & ties up capital.
Can exchange rates affect the final selling price for exported bottles?
Yes.
What is the ultimate factor that determines the selling price of a bottle of wine?
The ultimate facctor determining the selling price of a bottle of wine is THE PRICE THAT A CONSUMER IS WILLING TO PAY.